Livestock Research for Rural Development

1997, Volume 9, Number 3

Abstracts of papers in LRRD, Volume 9, Number 3


A study of feed degradability and rumen
environment of swamp buffaloes

Nguyen van Thu

Faculty of Agriculture, Cantho University, Vietnam

Two experiments were carried out on four fistulated swamp buffaloes to evaluate local feed resources using the in sacco method to study degradability and effects of the rumen environment. Promising feeds included: water plants (duckweed, azolla, Eleocharis dulcis, Blyxa Javenicey, and Sacciolepis indica), natural grasses (Bbrachiaria mutica and Panicum repens), legume tree leaves (Sesbania sesban, Sesbania grandiflora, and Leucaena leucocephala), crop residues and agro-industrial by-products (rice straw, sugarcane tops, maize stover and pine apple peel) and protein and energy-rich supplements (coconut and ground nut cake, rice bran, broken rice and maize).

The rumen environment study was a Latin square arrangement with four different diets: rice straw (RS), rice straw and molasses-urea cake (MUC), rice straw, MUC and grass (0.5% body weight), and rice straw and grass (0.5%DM of body weight). The results in the above order of diets were: ruminal NH3-N, 9.17, 13.7, 12.3, 10.2 mg/100ml (SE=1.19, P=0.032); bacteria population, 0.84, 1.01, 1.07, 0.98*109 (SE=0.03, P=0.002); protozoa population 2.49, 3.03, 3.38, 2.84*105 (SE=0.12, P=0.002). Feed intake was 96.0, 99.0, 113 and 109 g DM/W0.75 (SE=2.10, P=0.001), respectively. There was an indication of improvement in feed degradability when the rice straw was supplemented with molasses-urea cake and grass.

It is concluded that there is an abundance of local feeds available for buffalo production in the Mekong delta and that supplementation of rice straw with molasses-urea cake and grass has beneficial effects on the rumen environment of swamp buffaloes.

Key words: Swamp buffaloes, local feed resources, rice straw, molasses-urea cake, grass, ruminal ammonia, bacteria, protozoa, feed degradation.


An approach to the estimation of washing losses
in leaves of tropical trees

J Ly and T R Preston

Finca Ecológica, University of TropicalAgriculture
Thu Duc, Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam

Washing losses of dry matter (WL) were determined in samples of leaves from 9 different tropical trees and shrubs locally available either in fresh or sun-dried basis, during 30, 60, 90 and 120 min in four successive cycles of 30 min each in a semi-automatic washing machine. A significant effect (P<0.001) of time on the WL of the leaves was observed. The lowest values were recorded for 30 and 60 min. There was no difference in WL of leaves washed during 90 and 120 min. The regression analysis did not reveal differences in predicted WL at 0 min when linear and quadratic equations were fitted to the data (overall means, 21.0 and 19.5% for linear and quadratic equations, respectively). The WL of fresh leaves was significantly lower (P<0.001) than the corresponding value for sun-dried samples (22.2 and 30.6%, respectively). Ninety min of washing is suggested for leaves from the trees evaluated in this study.

Key words: washing losses, dry matter, trees and shrubs, leaves, fresh basis, sun-dried basis

Exotic hens under semi-scavenging conditions in Bangladesh

Mahfuzar Rahman, Poul Sorensen , Hans Askov Jensen
and Frands Dolberg

Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute, Savar 1341, Dhaka, Bangladesh.

A model for semi-scavenging poultry rearing has been developed in Bangladesh, which is applied with considerable success to the benefit of rural, poor women. 297 landless and mostly illiterate women, who participate in the Bangladesh Smallholder Livestock project acted as hosts in a field trial comprising 1272 pullets of eight breed combinations from four hatches (May, August, November and January) which were tested for egg production in three agro-ecological zones. The objectives of the trial were to test a breeding system, where hybrid parents are used as grand parents for female parents and to compare the performance of different breed combinations under semi scavenging conditions.

The results of the trial showed that the combination Rhode Island Red x Fayoumi had the highest egg production, lowest mortality and highest profit per hen.. However, none of the combinations produced to their genetic potential as egg production per hen-day was 35 - 40 per cent and age of first egg was from 32 to 34 weeks. In this experiment, the location effect was higher than the effect of breed combination and season and it is concluded that management aspects, which account for local variation in feed available for scavenging and supplementing and reduction in mortality are important factors to address to improve the technical efficiency of the model.

Key words: Poverty alleviation, poor women, semi-scavenging, poultry, breeds, breed combination, season, location.


A study of washing losses and in vitro gas production
characteristics of nine leaves from tropical trees
and shrubs for ruminants

J Ly, Nguyen Van Lai and T R Preston

University of Tropical Agriculture
Thu Duc, Thanh Pho Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam

Nine sun-dried leaves from tropical trees and shrubs were examined for washing losses of DM (WL) and in vitro gas production characteristics of the rumen ecosystem. In vitro gas production was compared with WL. The gas volume production could be explained by the amount of total short chain fatty acid (SCFA) produced over 96 hr (R2 = 0.88; P<0.001). The gas:SCFA production ratio was 23.8 ml/mmol . Potential gas production a + b as described by the exponential model p = a + b (1 + e-ct) was significantly (P<0.05) correlated with WL of either unwashed (r = 0.74) or washed leaves (r = 0.67) after 96 hr of incubation. Actual gas production at 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 96 hr could be predicted from WL of leaves (0.49<R2<0.77; P<0.05). The highest correlation between both parameters was obtained at 6 hr (R2 = 0.77; P<0.001). This same interdependence could not be established with washed samples. It is concluded that the washing loss test has good potential as predictor of in vitro gas production in the rumen ecosystem.

Key words: In vitro gas production, tropical trees and shrubs, leaves, washing losses, dry matter, sun-dried basis


Impact of smallholder livestock development project in
some selected areas of rural Bangladesh

Jahangir Alam

Bangladesh Livestock Research Institute, Savar, Dhaka, Bangladesh

This study conducted in 4 districts of Bangladesh has evaluated the impact of interventions made by the Smallholder Livestock Development Project (SLDP) on socio-economic conditions of the poor people in rural Bangladesh. One thousand sample households from different types of beneficiary groups were interviewed. It was observed that the membership of the project has consisted of poor and disadvantaged women as defined in the eligibility criterion. The programme has pioneered a number of innovations related to poultry production and provided credit to group members for their adoption and income generation. This has ensured employment of poor women and generated income for them.

The total net income per household was Taka 398 (1 US $ = Taka 43.8) and the average net income per household from SLDP activities was Taka 140 per week. The SLDP income was 35.1 per cent of total income of beneficiary households in the study areas. With the increase in income, originating mainly from SLDP activities, the beneficiary households made substantial progress in savings. The total cumulative savings per beneficiary after membership was Taka 1181, which was made by Taka 413 from group savings and Taka 768 from own savings. At the same time, the consumption of all food items especially milk, meat, eggs and grains increased after membership of SLDP.

The project has ensured empowerment of women in the study areas and increased their participation in decision making. Almost all beneficiaries reported that their socio-economic status has improved after their membership in SLDP and 100 per cent of the beneficiaries wanted to continue as members of SLDP in future.

Key words: Impact, poultry, poverty alleviation, landless women, credit, income, nutrition


Feeding urea-treated barley straw to lactating Friesian cows

M Hadjipanayiotou, S Economides, G Kyprianou, I Antoniou
and A Photiou

Agricultural Research Institute, 1516 Nicosia,
PO Box 2016, Cyprus

Six trials with Friesian cows and one digestibility experiment with sheep were carried out. Four dairy cow trials were on a research station (ORST) and two on private farms (OFT). In ORST 1 (high yielding cows, 27 kg/day) and ORST2 (medium yielding cows, 17 kg/day) were given urea-treated straw (UTS) offered with a low protein (LP) concentrate mixture and compared with untreated straw (US) given with a low (LP) or higher (HP) protein mixture ( provided by soybean meal or combination of soybean and urea (LP+U). In ORST 4, liberal feeding of UTS along with a LP mixture was compared with US offered with a mixture of high CP content. In trial 5 on a research station, and trials 6 and 7 on private farms (OFT) (OFT1 at Dhali and OFT2 at Aradippou), the effect on the lactation performance of replacement of barley hay with UTS was studied.

Treatment of straw improved its in vivo and in vitro digestibility and N-content. UTS fed along with a low CP content mixture (ORST1, 2 and 4) resulted in similar lactation performance to cows on US offered with a HP content mixture supplied from soybean meal (SBM). It must be underlined, however, that although cows on US with the low CP mixture gave the lowest yield, differences between diets were not significant. ORST 5 and OFT 1 and 2 showed that UTS can replace barley hay, a roughage source of relatively good quality (D= 55-60%). It is concluded that UTS can replace barley hay in diets of lactating cows, and that while UTS of higher energy and nitrogen can improve the economics on high levels of SBM inclusion, the benefit may in some instances be relatively marginal.

Key words: Friesian cows, urea-treated straw, milk yield, milk composition


The rapid appraisal of the geographical influence of the market of Xochimilco in the south-east of Mexico City

H Losada, R Pealing, R Soriano, J Rivera, J Cortés, J Vieyra and H Martínez

Animal Production Systems Area, Departament of Biology of Reproduction, Division of Biological and Health Sciences, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa. Av. Michoacán y la Purisíma.
Col. Vicentina. Iztapalpa. C.P. 09340. México DF 1


A survey was carried out to evaluate the use of a local market as a method to asses its geographical region of influence. Interviews were made with the casual tradesmen linked to local processes of production. In total 332 commodities were identified, which were grouped into 11 families. There was a clear predominance of agricultural products. The spatial distribution of the commodities allowed the definition of three regions of influence. The method is discussed in terms of the commercial fluxes, and precedence of the area.

Key words: Mexico, local market, geographical region, casual tradesman

The keeping of poultry and pigs in the backyards of the
urbanised areas of Iztapalapa (east of Mexico City)
as a proposal for sustainable production

H Losada, R Pealing, J Cortés and J Vieyra

Animal Production Systems Area, Departament of Biology of Reproduction.
Division of Biological and Health Sciences, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa.
Av. Michoacán y la Purisíma. Col. Vicentina. Iztapalpa. CP 09340. México DF 1

A survey was done to characterise the keeping of poultry and pigs in the backyards of the urbanised areas of Iztapalapa at the east of Mexico City. The results demonstrate that backyard production is carried out within the vicinity of the house or habitation. The number of birds kept ranged from 1 to 110; the largest frequency was found within the value of 1-10 birds. In relation to the production of pigs, the number of animals was concentrated within the range of 1-5 pigs. The system of feeding of both species was based on the use of restaurant wastes, stale tortillas, maize, wheat grains and alfalfa. The objective of poultry and pig production was found to be fundamentally for subsistence use and for saving money for emergencies. The character of the system is discussed in terms of a proposal for its sustainability.

Key words: Mexico, backyard, poultry, pigs, family farm, house wastes


Responses of four varieties of sugar cane to
planting distance and mulching

Nguyen Thi Mui, Thomas R Prestonand Ingvar Ohlsson

Goat and Rabbit Research Centre, SonTay, Hatay, Vietnam

The experiment was carried out in 1994 and 1995 at the Goat and Rabbit Research Centre in Bavi district, which is a hilly area in North Vietnam. The treatments were arranged in a Latin square split-plot design, and included four varieties: Hoanam, POJ 3016, F 156, My 55-14 and two planting distances: 90cm or 150 cm between rows. Treatments with dead leaves included mulching and no-mulching. Sugar cane was harvested at 10 and 12 months after planting.

After two years the results showed that: varieties F156, Hoanam and My 55-14 produced significantly more edible biomass than the traditional variety POJ 30-16, which has been planted for a long time in Bavi district. There were no advantages in yield nor in feed value when sugar cane was harvested at 10 compared with 12 months. Returning the dead leaves to the soil increased yields of edible biomass, the amount of carbon sequestered in soil, and the growth rates of maize planted in soil samples from the experimental plots after harvest. Narrowing the row distance from 150 to 90 cm led to increases in biomass yield without affecting brix or extraction rate of the juice.

Returning the dead leaves to the soil, decreasing the row distance and selection of newly introduced sugar cane varieties are management practices which can be recommended to farmers in the Bavi area.

Key words: Sugar cane, row distance, animal feed, harvest time, dead leaves, mulching

On-farm evaluation of planting distance
and mulching of sugar cane

Nguyen Thi Mui, Ngo Tien Dung, Dinh Van Binh and Thomas R Preston

Goat and Rabbit Research Centre, SonTay, Hatay, Vietnam

A trial was conducted on 10 farms in Bavi district, Hatay province in North Vietnam. The results presented for the first year showed that returning the dead leaves to the soil in a range of household plots (n=10) increased stalk yield by 8 tonnes/ha (10.6%) over the control and improved soil fertility. There was no change in juice quality (Brix) or extraction rate. Narrowing the row distance from the traditional 150cm to 100cm increased stalk yield by 20.4 tonnes/ha (29.4%) with no changes in the quality (Brix) of the juice for animal feed or the rate of extraction in a simple 3-roll mill.

Key words: Sugar cane, on-farm trial, row distance, Brix, juice extraction, soil fertility


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