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Utilization of Jack Bean (Canavalia ensiformis) meal as a substitute for soybean meal in diet of laying hens

Solihin Fikriandi, Sumiati1 and Rita Mutia1

Graduate School of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, IPB University Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, Faculty of Animal Science, IPB University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia
sumiati@apps.ipb.ac.id
1 Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology, Faculty of Animal Science, IPB University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia

Abstract

The high price of feed, especially protein source feed ingredients, causes production costs in the livestock industry to increase. One of the local feed ingredients that can be used as a source of protein is jack beans. This study aimed to evaluate the use of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) as a substitute for soybean meal protein in laying hen feed on the performance of Lohman Brown strain laying hens . A total of 150 laying hens aged 36 weeks were divided into three treatment groups (CE0: feed control, CE20: Jack bean meal protein replaces 30% of soybean meal proteinand CE30: Jack bean meal protein replaces 60% of soybean meal protein), with each group consisting of five replicationsand ten hens per replicationand each hen was placed in a battery cage. The experiment was designed using a completely randomized design (CRD). The results showed that the use of 30 and 60% jack bean meal as a substitute for soybean meal in the diet of laying hens significantly (p<0.05) reduced the value of feed consumption, hen day production (HDP), egg weight, egg massand increased the value of FCR. Whereas it had no significant effect on the egg index, albumen indexand yolk index but significantly (p<0.05) reduced the eggshell thickness, color yolk scoreand haugh unit (HU). Based on these results, it can be concluded that the use of jack beans up to 30% in the diet of laying hens negatively impacts the performance of laying hens, there is a need for experiments on the processing of jack beans, especially in reducing the trypsin inhibitor content so that it can be used optimally as a protein source feed ingredient.

Keywords: egg, jack bean, performance, egg quality, Lohman Brown


Introduction

The growth of Indonesia's population every year makes the Indonesian people's need for animal protein increasingly high. One of the livestock commodities as a result of animal protein is eggs. Egg production in Indonesia is 5.556 million tonnes in 2022, higher than in 2020 and 2021, namely 5.141 million tonnes and 5.155 million tonnes (BPS 2023). This will greatly influence the Indonesian people's economic sector and nutritional fulfillment. The increase in livestock production must be supported by the presence of quality feed, available continuously and has a relatively cheap price.

Providing good quality feed is an important factor in the success of the livestock industry and has the largest contribution to these business activities, namely 50-70% (Katayane et al 2014). Beski et al (2015) stated that the protein component plays an important role in an animal feed formula because it is actively involved in vital metabolism, such as hormones, enzymes, antibodiesand so onand it is involved in forming body tissue. One of the most widely used sources of protein is soybean meal. However, soybean meals in Indonesia are obtained by importing from abroad, which results in soaring feed costs. As a result, fulfilling protein sources is quite burdensome for economic production costs. So, there is a need for protein feed ingredients that are cheap and easy to obtain as a solution to reduce costs. Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) can be used as an alternative feed ingredient that has a high protein content and meets the requirements to be a substitute source of protein for feed.

Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) is a vine that originates from Central and South America. This plant has spread and grows abundantly in tropical countries (Febeles 2017), including Indonesia. It was recorded that from 2010 to 2011, 24 hectares of land in Central Java Province produced around 216 tons of jack koro per harvest (Pamungkas and Arnanto 2019). Jack bean farmers gathered in the Damar Sindoro-Sumbing Community, in Temanggung, Central Java can produce four to eight tons of jack koro each harvest (Balitkabi 2016). Jack bean has good nutrient content, namely crude protein reaching 30% to 36.40%, fiber (3 .25%-6.35%), lipids (5.85%-9.23%)and ash (3.5%-5.32%) (Patel et al 2016). Jack beans contain amino acids which are also found in soybean meal. The content of essential amino acids in the form of isoleucine, leucineand tyrosine in jack beans is considered to be higher compared to other types of legumes (Sridhar and Seena 2006).

In addition, jack beans also contain vitamin B which plays a role in helping energy metabolism in the body, vitamin B2 and vitamin C to maintain the body's immunity and isoflavone content which is good for the body as an antioxidant to ward off free radicals (Primawesti and Rustanti 2014). Jack beans also contain hypocholesterolemic nutrients, such as niacin, fiber, isoflavones, phenolsand saponins (Solomon et al 2018). Another advantage of the jack bean is that it is cheaper and easier to cultivate than soybeans (Susanti et al 2014).

This study aimed to evaluate the use of jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) as a substitute for soybean meal protein in laying hen feed on the performance and production of Lohman Brown strain laying hens.


Materials and method

Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis) meal preparation

The jack beans were put in a bucket to soak for 24 hours. The soaked jack bean nuts would be peeled, then washed thoroughly and heated in the oven at 600 C for 24 hours. The dried jack beans would be made into flour using a grinder. The jack bean meal sample underwent proximate analysis (see Table 1).

Table 1. Proximate analysis of jack bean meal

Chemical Content

Content

Dry Matter (%)

91.92

Crude Protein (%)

24.48

Crude Fiber (%)

1.08

Crude Fat (%)

2.57

Calcium (%)

0.31

Phosphor (%)

0.25

Gross Energy (kal/gram)

4340

Note: Result of Center for Biological Resources and Biotechnology Research, IPB University

Experimental design and feed

This study employed Lohman Brown strain of laying hens as the experimental subjects. A total of 150 laying hens aged 36 weeks were divided into three treatment groups, with each group consisting of five replicationsand ten chickens per replicationand each chicken was placed in a battery cage.

Feed was given 110 g/head/day and drinking water was given ad libitum. Treatment rations were given twice a day. Every day the temperature and humidity of the cage, feed consumption, egg weight, hen day productionand egg mass were recorded.

After 4-week rearing period, the performance of the laying hens was measured which included measuring feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, egg massand hen day production. In addition, the physical quality of the eggs is also evaluated, consisting of egg index, egg yolk index, egg albumen index, egg yolk colorand Haugh Unit (HU).

The feed formulation complied with the standard requirements for laying hensand the specific details in Table 2.

Table 2. Diet composition and nutrient content

Ingredients (%)

CE0

CE20

CE30

Corn

54.6

49

43

Rice Bran

4.45

4.65

5.92

MBM

4.4

5

5.88

SBM

19

13.3

7.6

JBM

0

9.65

19.3

Fish Meal

7.65

8

8

CPO

1.3

1.2

1

DCP

1.1

1.3

1.3

CaCO3

6.6

6.9

6.9

NaCl

0.4

0.4

0.4

Premix

0.5

0.5

0.5

DL-Methionine

0

0.1

0.2

Nutrient ContenCE20

ME (kkal kg-1)

2807.53

2807.71

2808.33

Crude Protein (%)

18.52

18.52

18.52

Crude Fiber (%)

1.56

1.60

1.82

Crude Fat (%)

5.87

5.80

5.96

Calcium (%)

3.82

4.06

4.16

Posphor (%)

0.69

0.73

0.74

Lisin (%)

1.27

1.23

1.18

Metionin (%)

0.41

0.52

0.61

Sistin+metionin (%)

0.76

0.77

0.78

Noted: Nutrient content according to Lohman (2020)1)Calculation results based on Leeson and Summers (2005) CE0= Feed control, CE20= Jack bean meal protein replaces 30% of soybean meal protein, CE30= Jack bean meal protein replaces 60% of soybean meal protein

Data analysis

The study employed a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) as the experimental design. The obtained data were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) for variables that exhibited significant effects. If the differences among treatment means were statistically significant (p<0.05), the post hoc Tukey's multiple range test was conducted. The data processing was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 25 software.


Result and discussion

Performance

The performance of the hens observed during the study included feed consumption, hen day production (HDP), egg weight, egg massand feed conversion ratio (FCR) are presented in Table 3.

Table 3. Performance of laying hens

Parameter

Treatment

CE0

CE20

CE30

Feed consumption (g head-1 day-1)

100.021.00a

87.863.00b

58.322.40c

Hen day production

83.071.32a

67.713.24b

22.863.39c

Egg weight (g)

58.101.07a

57.420.92a

54.481.19b

Egg mass (g head-1day-1)

48.260.77a

38.871.55b

12.551.99c

Feed conversion ratio

2.070.03a

2.260.09a

4.720.64b

Note: Different letters in the same row showed differences p<0.05)

The use of jack bean meal as a substitute for soybean meal protein up to 30 and 60% in the diet (p<0.05) reduced feed consumption, HDP, egg weightand egg mass and increased the value of FCR, but the use of 30% (CE20) of jack bean meal in the diet had no significant effect in the egg weight and FCR compared to the control treatment (CE0). The results of this study showed that the higher the use of jack beans in the diet, the more chicken's performance will decrease. This is because jack beans contain anti-nutrients in the form of trypsin inhibitor. Akande (2016) reported that the addition of 15% jack bean in the diet lowered the weight gain of broiler chick.

Mahardika et al (2023) noted the trypsin inhibitor level of jack bean was 9.39 mg/g of materialand jack bean meal that was treated as an autoclave for 25 minutes at a temperature of 26 C and a pressure of 1 atm containing 7.96 g/mg trypsin inhibitor. Whereas in this study, the jack bean was only treated as soaked and heated in the oven at 600C for 24 hours, so the trypsin inhibitor content in the feed in treatments CE20 and CE30 might be still relatively high. Trypsin inhibitor can inhibit the process of protein digestion in the digestive tract which then reduces the availability of amino acids for production purposes (Jayanegara et al 2019). Protein is an essential nutrient for the body because it consists of amino acids while the body can not synthesize itself. The amino acids available in the diets will be utilized for building body proteins or protein skeletal muscle synthesis, to meet the production needand the excess was converted into energy (Gropper and Smith 2013; Aziz et al 2020). Furthermore, functional amino acids such as methionine play a vital role in the body's metabolism to improve the health, growthand development of reproductive organs (Lihsanan et al 2018).

According to Palliyeguru and Mackenzie (2011), the use of raw soybean flour containing trypsin inhibitor of 6-21 mg/g of the material varied significantly (p<0.05) can reduce feed consumption and the body weight of broiler chickens. Mukhlis et al (2021) also stated that high levels of trypsin inhibitor (27.62 mg/g) in the feed decreased feed digestibility.

Egg physical quality

Egg physical quality can be measured in several ways: egg index, albumen index, yolk index, eggshell thickness, color yolk score and haugh unit (HU).

Table 4. Egg quality of laying hens

Parameter

Treatment

CE0

CE20

CE30

Egg index (%)

75.436.98

77.351.58

81.648.23

Albumen index (%)

13.390.95

13.821.14

14.382.77

yolk index (%)

44.161.90

44.040.91

44.761.32

Eggshell thickness (mm)

0.350.08a

0.330.01b

0.310.05c

Color yolk score

8.000.70a

7.40.54ab

6.80.44b

Haugh unit (HU)

97.162.14a

91.121.45b

89.714.38b

Note: Different letters in the same row showed differences (p<0.05)

Based on the result of this study (table 4) showed that the use of 30 and 60% jack bean meal in the diet as a substitute for soybean protein had no significant effect on egg index, albumen indexand yolk index, but it (p<0.05) decreased eggshell thickness. The lower value of eggshell thickness in treatments CE20 and CE30 compared to CE0 was due to lower consumption of calcium and phosphor which was caused by lower feed consumption in treatments CE20 and CE30. In other words, the lower the feed consumption, the lower the balance of calcium and phosphorus consumed by the hens. Fadillah (2022) stated the factors that influence the thickness of egg shells include the balance of calcium and phosphorus in the feed. Calcium (Ca) and Phosphorus (P) are essential elements in poultry nutrition for eggshell formation, also Ca and P are important co-factors for many enzymes and hormones. In addition, P plays a vital role in protein synthesis (Lia et al 2016). Low Ca intake can cause poor eggshell quality (Jiang et al 2013). The calcium requirement that laying hens must consume is 3.25-4.0% and the phosphorus is 0.6-0.9% (BSN 2008) whereas, in this study, feed consumption in treatments CE20 and CE30 decreased, allowing Ca and P consumption to also decrease. An et al (2016) also reported that eggshell strength and thickness increased significantly (p<0.01) based on dietary Ca intake levels linearly.

The use of 30 and 60% jack as a substitute for soybean protein in the diet (p<0.05) lowered the value of the haugh unit compared to the control treatment (CE0). The haugh unit value is one of the criteria for determining the quality of the inner egg by measuring the egg albumen height and egg weight, which is a correlation between egg weight and albumen height. Albumen protein consists of fiber protein, namely ovomucin. Ovomucin plays a role in enveloping air to form albumen gel. Albumen becomes thicker if the ovomucin meshwork is numerous and strong with high albumen viscosity. The higher the haugh unit value, the higher the ovomucin and the better the egg interior quality (Roesdiyanto 2002).

Mountney (1976) stated a haugh unit value of more than 72 is categorized as AA quality egg, a haugh unit value of 60-72 is A quality egg, a haugh unit value of 31-60 is B quality eggand a haugh unit value of less than 31 is categorized as C quality egg. Even though the haugh unit values ​​in treatments CE20 (91.12) and CE30 (89.71) were lower than CE0 (97.16), these values ​​were still categorized as very good quality eggs (AA).


Conclusion


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