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Pig growth performance as a result of consumption of fermented liquid feed containing tamarind seeds

Redempta Wea, Bernadete Barek Koten1 and Theresia Nur Indah Koni1

Animal Production Study Program, Department of Animal Husbandry, Kupang State Agricultural Polytechnic, Indonesia
redemptawea136@gmail.com
1 Animal Feed Technology, Department of Animal Husbandry, Kupang State Agricultural Polytechnic, Indonesia

Abstract

Pig growth performance is largely determined by feed that competes with human needs. Therefore, alternative feed such as tamarind seeds with liquid feed fermentation technology can be used to fulfill this. The research aims to examine the growth performance of pigs due to consuming fermented liquid feed containing tamarind seeds. The study was carried out in 16 sow pens at the Kupang State Agricultural Polytechnic in April - November 2022. The study used a randomized block design (RBD) with 4 treatments and 4 replications. The research treatments were tamarind seed fermentation TSF0 = fermented liquid feed without tamarind seeds, TSF10 = 10% TSF, TFS20 = 20% TSF and TFS30 = with 30% TFS. Research data were analyzed using analysis of variance and Duncan's further test. The research variable is feed intake, body weight gain, and pig ration conversion. The results showed that increasing the percentage of the use of tamarind seeds in fermented liquid feed (0%, 10%, 20%, 30%) had a very significant effect (p<0.01) on feed intake of Landrace cross pigs, but had no significant effect (p>0.05) on the body weight gain and ration conversion. The conclusion is that the use of tamarind seeds up to 20% in fermented liquid feed has the best impact on feed consumption, body weight gain, and ration conversion for pigs and increasing tamarind seeds results in a decrease in weight gain and inefficient rations.

Keywords: bioconversion, an aerobe, anti-nutrition, crossbreed, Landrace, nutrients, sow, pig


Introduction

The biggest production cost of livestock businesses, especially pig farming, is feed. However, one of the energy source feed ingredients, namely corn, competes with human needs, especially in the East Nusa Tenggara region of Indonesia. This occurs because of environmental conditions where the rainy season is shorter (3-4 months) than the dry season (8-9 months).

Therefore, the use of alternative feed ingredients is the main choice. One alternative feed ingredient is tamarind seeds as waste from the tamarind fruit industry. Tamarind seeds have nutrients, namely 13,13% crude protein, 6,71% crude fiber, and 4,82% crude fat, but they also have anti-nutrients in the form of tannin 5,62% (Panigrahi et al 1989) and hard seed coats so their use is limited.

This limitation can be overcome using tamarind seed fermented liquid feed technology. The research results of Wea et al (2020) showed that liquid fermented tamarind seed feed with a ratio of water to feed ingredients of three to one and fermented for 14 days produced the best nutrient content. However, the percentage of use in the ration that can influence the growth of pigs is not yet known, so this research was carried out with the aim of knowing the growth response of Landrace cross pigs that consume fermented liquid feed containing tamarind seeds in different percentages.


Materials and methods

Research location

The research took place from April - November 2022 at the Animal Feed and Nutrition Laboratory and the Kupang State Agricultural Polytechnic pig pen.

Research procedure

Research procedures, namely:

Liquid Feed Fermentation
Provision of fermented liquid feed
Research parameters

The research parameters are pig growth performance which consists of ration consumption, body weight gain, and ration conversion. Calculation of ration consumption, body weight gain, and ration conversion, as follows:

Feed intake (FI) is obtained by measuring the ration given minus the remaining ration per unit of time (grams/head/day).

Body weight gain (BWG) was obtained by measuring the results of weighing the final weight minus the initial weight per unit of time (grams/head/day).

Feed conversion ratio (FCR) is obtained by dividing feed consumption (grams/head/day) by daily weight gain (grams/head/day).

Experimental design

Percentage of tamarind use in treatment rations based on the results of a study by Tualaka et al (2012) and Wea and Koten (2013), namely:

TSF0: Contains 0% tamarind seeds

TSF10: Contains 10% tamarind seeds

TFS20: Contains 20% tamarind seeds

TFS30: Contains 30% tamarind seeds. The treatment was repeated four times so that there were 16 experimental units. The composition and nutritional content of feed ingredients and grower phase pig rations used are presented in Table 1 and Table 2.

Table 1. Nutritional composition of research feed ingredients

Feed ingredients

Nutritional composition (%)

DM

CP

CF

CFi

Ca

P

ME (Kcal/kg)

Corn

89

8.3

3.9

2.8

0.03

0.28

3420

Bran

90

13.3

13

13.9

0.07

1.16

2850

MBM

93

51.5

10.9

5.6

9.99

4.98

2225

SBM

90

47.5

2.9

5.4

0.34

0.69

3380

TS*

84.87

14.19

5.58

6.75

0.41

0.08

3302

Note: NRC (2012), * Wea et al (2019), MBM = meat and bone meal, SBM = Soybean meal, TS = Tamarind seed, DM = Dry matter, CP = Crude protein, CF = Crude fat, Cfi = Crude fiber, ME = Metabolic energy



Table 2. Composition and nutritional content of research rations

Feed ingredients

Feed composition (%)

TSF0

TSF10

TSF20

TFS30

Corn

53

49.5

47.5

40.5

Bran

27

21.5

14.5

12.5

MBM

8

10.2

13.5

11

SBM

12

8.8

4.5

6

TS

0

10

20

30

The nutritional content of feed

DM (%)

89.71

89.30

88.90

88.39

ME (kcal/kg)

3165.70

3160.24

3150.63

3179.50

CP (%)

17.81

17.82

17.80

17.80

CF (%)

6.80

6.65

6.46

6.25

CFi (%)

6.33

6.10

5.69

5.84

Ca (%)

0.87

1.12

1.47

1.26

P (%)

0.94

0.96

1.02

0.87

Note: the calculation results

Data analysis

The research data were analyzed by analysis of variance using a randomized block design (RBD) and Duncan's further test (Gomez and Gomez 2010).


Results and discussion

Growth performance

The growth performance of pigs is influenced by consumption and weight gain which in turn will influence the economic value which can be seen from the ration conversion value. The growth performance of pigs in response to the provision of fermented liquid feed containing tamarind seeds can be seen in Table 3.

Table 3. Growth performance of pigs consuming fermented liquid feed made from tamarind seeds

Variable

Treatment

p - value

TSF0

TSF10

TSF20

TSF30

FI

81.731.2c

85.250.94b

87.200.59a

87.151.05a

0.00

BWG

186.6729.06ns

224.4516.78ns

284.4565.43ns

260.0040.55ns

0.08

FCR

2.390.54ns

2.310.27ns

2.281.21ns

2.290.76ns

0.99

Note:a,b,c = Different superscripts on the same line indicate real differences (p<0.05);ns=non-significant p>0,05), FI= Feed Intake, BWG = Body Weight Gain, FCR= Feed Conversion Ratio, TSF0 = fermented liquid feed without tamarind seeds, TSF10 = 10% TSF, TFS20 = 20% TSF and TFS30 = with 30% TFS



Figure 1. Curvilinear trend on feed intake of pigs fed fermented liquid feed
containing different levels of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds
Figure 2. Curvilinear trend on body weight gain of pigs fed fermented liquid
feed containing different levels of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seeds

Figure 3. Curvilinear trend on feed conversion of pigs fed fermented liquid feed
containing different levels of tamarind (Tamarindus indica L.) seed

Based on Table 3, shows that the use of tamarind seeds in fermented liquid feed very significantly (p<0.01) affects the feed consumption of grower pigs, but body weight gain and feed conversion are not influenced (p>0.05) by the use of tamarind seeds.

Feed consumption increased along with increasing body weight up to 20% use of tamarind seeds and decreased when the percentage of use was increased to 30%.

The increase in feed consumption is thought to be due to an increase in the palatability of pigs consuming fermented feed containing tamarind seeds compared to control feed even though the rations are prepared at iso energy and iso protein (Table 2). This is in accordance with the statement by Amtiran et al (2018) that the nutritional content of feed due to differences in the composition of feed ingredients in treatments will affect the consumption and digestibility of dry matter and organic matter.

The increase in body weight gain up to the use of 20% tamarind seeds in fermented liquid feed and decreased when the use was increased to 30%, is thought to be due to an increase in anti-nutritional substances from tamarind seeds in the form of phenolytic tannins which will bind with other nutrients such as protein and carbohydrates so that absorption and utilization nutrients become less than optimal.

Likewise, it can be seen that the use of tamarind seeds up to 20% can also reduce the ration conversion value. However, if the use is up to 30%, the fermented liquid feed will become inefficient.

This shows that economically, tamarind seeds in fermented liquid feed are more profitable if used in fermented liquid feed as much as 20%. This is because pigs are able to optimize the rations consumed to produce maximum body weight gain.

Thus, Zoric et al (2015) stated that pigs that consume dry feed and liquid feed have the same performance.


Conclusion


Acknowledgments

We would like to thank the leadership of the Kupang State Agricultural Polytechnic for trusting us to use the laboratory and pig pen and all the teams involved in carrying out this research.


References

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