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Citation of this paper

The effect of replacing fish meal with fermented sago larvae (FSL) on broiler performance

Osfar Sjofjan and Danung Nur Adli

Animal Nutrition Department, Animal Science Faculty, Brawijaya University 65145, East Java, Indonesia
danungnuradli1994@gmail.com

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of substitution of fishmeal by fermented sago larvae meal on the performance of broilers. There were 5 treatments of fermented sago larvae replacing fish meal at 0, 15, 20, 25 and 40% of the diet, with each treatment replicated four times.

There were  curvilinear responses in feed intake, live weight gain and feed conversion as the proportion of FSL in the diet was increased. The optimum response appeared to be when the FSL was about 25% of the diet.

Keywords: beetle, chitin, exoskeleton,protein, Moluccas


Introduction

Indonesia imports large quantities of fishmeal (800 tonnes/year). The massive utilization in animal feeding of fishmeal poses severe environmental issues. Indonesia has long coastal line but still cannot produce fish meal as feed. Feed was identified as the major contributor to the land occupation, primary production use, acidification, climate change, energy use, and water dependence (Sjofjan et al 2020). Currently, insects are being considered as a replacing protein source for animal feed. Some insect species can be grown on organic side streams, reducing environmental contamination and transforming waste into high-protein feed that can replace increasingly more expensive compound feed ingredients, such as a fish meal. Then, from an environmental point of view, insect cultures are sustainable; culturing insects is usually performed in warehouses, with no need for large areas or much water, particularly when compared with crops, especially in a tropical condition like Indonesia.

The area of sago palm in Indonesia occupies 1.40 million ha 80% located both Moluccas and Papua. The sago were a staple food for Indonesia eastern part where areas, the western part were rice as a food staple. The actual sago area in the Moluccas is 31.360 ha, and it can be developed to be about 649.938 ha. The number of sago trees ready to be harvested is counted 86 trees/ha. The waste from harvested sago crop is tree sprout which, can be a place for red coconut beetle (Rhynchophorus ferrugineus) to lay eggs. The Larva of the beetle is recognized with sago larva. The potency of larva sago from the forest is estimated at 935 tonnes with the productivity of 2.77 kg/m3 of sago tree sprout waste. The breeding season occurred a yearlong and the larva could be harvested 39−45 days from post-cut away the tree. The sago larvae has not much chitin as other insect has it due to the exoskeleton don’t developed. Sago larva contains protein and energy, so it is potential as a source of protein in feed to substitute fish meal.

Photo 1. Sago larvae Photo 2. Fermented sago larvae meal


Photo 3. Sago tree before harvested Photo 4. Sago tree after harvested

Photo 5. Site where beetle lay the eggs


Methods and materials

Experimental design

The chicken used in this study were 300 day-old broiler chicks with average weight of 35.3 1.11 g were reared for 35 days. The treatments were levels of 0, 15, 20, 25 and 40% FSL replacing fish meal (Table 2).

Preparation of the fermented sago larvae (FSL)

The materials used were sago larva worm in powder from Moluccas and Papua Island. The larvae weight at collection ranged between 25 and 100 mg. The collected larvae were dried for 4 h in an oven at low temperature (60◦C) and grinded to a powder. Both insect larval meals were full-fat and produced from the larval stage of insects. The next step was to add Trichoderma spp at 5g per kg of FSL. The last step was putting the FSL in a sack with holes to allow entry of air and storing for 7 days at room temperature after which it was sun-dried (Sjofjan et al 2020).

Feed ingredients

Table 1. Chemical composition of the feed ingredients (% air-dry basis)

DM

CP

CF

Fat

Chitin

Maize

88

8.0

2.4

8.2

-

Fish meal

89

37.6

5

5

-

Rice bran

90

10

26

3.5

-

Sago Larvae Meal

92

36.3

4

6.5

0.2

FSL

90

37.5

5

4.1

0



Table 2. Ingredient composition of the diet

FSL replacing fishmeal, %

0

15

20

25

40

Maize

55

55

55

55

55

FSL

0

15

20

25

40

Fish meal

41

26

21.3

16

3

Limestone

1

1.1

1.1

1.1

1.1

Salt

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

0.3

Soybean oil

2.6

2.8

2.8

2.8

0.5

Vitamin premix

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

Mineral premix

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

0.05

Vitamin premix (per kg of diet); vitamin A 12,500 IU; Vitamin D3, 2,500; Vitamin E 20 IU; Mineral premix (Per kg of diet); Fe 70 IU, Zn, 90 IU; CU, 10 IU; Mn, 80 IU



Table 3. Calculated analysis of the diets (%)

FSL replacing fish meal, %

0

15

20

25

40

DM

91

91

90

92

91

CP

22

22

22

22

22

Fat

4.2

4.2

4.2

4.2

4.2

CF

5

5

5.2

5.2

5.2

Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fiber (CF)

Statistical analysis

Data were subjected to analysis of variance using the general linear model in the ANOVA program of the SAS Version 4.0 software. Sources of variation in the model were treatments and error.

Measurements

The broilers were weighed at the beginning of the experiment, and every week thereafter till the end of the experiment for 35 days.


Results and discussion

The crude protein content similar with Mulyono et al (2019) at level 35-37% which the insect has potentially to replacing fish meal. In addition Aniebo et al (2008) stated the insect meal can be replaced to fish meal due to acceptable of nutrient content. There were curvilinear responses in feed intake, live weight gain and feed conversion as the proportion of FSL in the diet was increased (Table 4; Figure 1-3). The optimum response appeared to be when the FSL was about 25% of the diet. Similar findings were reported by Nginya et al (2019) feeding chicken with grasshopper meal . Contrast findings with Adli et al (2020) and Sjofjan et al (2021) growth rate was enhanced with up to 25% of the fermented palm kernel meal in the diet but was depressed at higher levels.

Table 4. Mean values for feed intake, live weight gain and feed conversion (FCR) in broilers fed increasing levels of FSL replacing fish meal

% FSL

SEM

p

0

15

20

25

40

Initial weight, g

44

46

46

46

45

2.1

0.05

Final weight,g

1109a

1329a

1381a

1386b

1283ab

0.2

0.05

Feed int., g

547

546

562

590

550

6.1

0.05

FCR

2.07a

2.06a

2.05a

2.05ab

2.08b

0.12

0.05

LWG, g

263

265

274

285

252

25

0.05

ab Mean values in the same row without common superscript differ at p<005
FCR= Feed intake/lLW



Figure 1. Effect of FSL on Initial weight Figure 2. Effect of FSL on Final weight


Figure 3. Effect of FSL on feed intake Figure 4. Effect of FSL on live weight gain

Figure 5. Effect of FSL on feed conversion


Conclusions


Acknowledgement

We would like to thank all of those with whom we had the pleasure to work during this project.


References

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