Livestock Research for Rural Development 33 (12) 2021 LRRD Search LRRD Misssion Guide for preparation of papers LRRD Newsletter

Citation of this paper

Effect of dietary levels of Tra fish (Pangasius hypophthalmus) oil supplementation on nutrient utilization, growth performance and carcass traits of Noi chicken in Mekong delta, Vietnam

Nguyen Thi Kim Dong and Nguyen Van Thu1

College of Applied Biology, Tay Do University, Vietnam
ntkdong@ctu.edu.vn
1 College of Agriculture, Can Tho University, Vietnam

Abstract

Increasing levels of Tra fish oil (TFO) were added diets of native chicken (Noi) in Vietnam to determine effects on growth and carcass quality traits. One hundred and fifty Noi chicken at 28 days of age (2931.10g/bird) were arranged in a randomized design with five treatments and three replicates. The treatments were (TFO) levels of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8% of the diet (DM basis) corresponding to TFO0, TFO2, TFO4, TFO6 and TFO8 treatments with 10 chicken per experimental unit.

Increasiasing the level of Tra fish oil led to curvilinear responses with optimum values at 6% oil for: (i) a reduction in feed intake; (ii) and improvement in growth rate and in feed conversion; and (iii) a high per content of breast and thigh muscle in the carcass

Key words: carcass traits, catfish oil, Noi chicken, supplementation, weight gain


Introduction

Chicken production is very important in economic income of producers in families of the Mekong Delta of Viet Nam. They are usually raised in large scale system and fed conventional feeds obtained r from the commercial feed companies with a high cost. Raising native chicken breeds are also considered. Among Tau Vang, Ta and Noi breeds, Noi chicken are the most common in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam (Bui Thi Phuong et al., 2019). They give good meat quality which is accepted by consumers with the higher price than other breeds and usually are fed local grains (paddy rice, maize and broken rice,) Consequently the exploitation of locally available feeds is a priority.

In the Mekong delta there is a large water surface area with many rivers and canals, which are suitable for Tra fish (Pangasius hypothalamus) cultivation. Tra fish production in this region reached 1.56 million tonnes in 2020 (Vasep 2021). Tra fish production is mostly for exportation of fish fillets with the result that there is an abundance of by-products accounting for 60-65% of the weight of the whole fish (Nguyen Thi Thuy et al 2007). A large quantity of fish oil (over 140000 tonnes per year) is thus available which has high nutrient value, due primarily to its long- chain, polyunsaturated acids (80%) (Le Thi Men et al 2003). Extraction of Omega-3 acid from Tra fish leaves a byproduct (Tra fish oil) equivalent to 80% of the fat in Tra fish (Pham Thi Le Thu and Pham Thi Lan Phuong 2013). Thus Tra fish oil could be an economic feed supplement for chicken in Vietnam.

The aim of this study was to determine the optimum level of Tra fish oil for growth and carcass quality of Noi chicken raised under the conditions of the Mekong delta of Vietnam.


Materials and methods

Location and time

The trial was conducted at the Experimental farm in Binh An village, Binh Thuy district, Can Tho City from May to September in 2019.The chemical analysis was done at the laboratory of the Department of Animal sciences, Faculty of Agriculture of Can Tho University.

Experimental design

Two hundred Noi chicken at one day of age were purchased at the local chicken farm in Ben Tre province. Prior to starting the experiment, all chicken were vaccinated against the Gumboro, Newcastle, H5N 1 and fowl pox diseases. Then one hundred fifty crossbred Noi chicken at 5 weeks of age (2931.10 g/bird) were selected and allotted in a randomized design with 5 treatments and 3 replicates, and 10 birds per experimental unit (balanced sex). The treatments were the different Tra fish oil (TFO) supplement levels of 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8% to concentrate-based diets (DM), corresponding to the TFO0, TFO2, TFO4, TFO6 and TFO8 treatments, respectively. The experiment lasted 10 weeks. The trial was done in 2 periods from 5 to 9 and 10 to 14 weeks of age due to the different dietary CP levels (Table 3). The composition of diets is in in Table 1.

Table 1. Composition of diets (% DM)

Feed

5-9 week period

10-14 week period

Broken rice

46.1

42.9

Rice bran

27.3

27.8

Maize

2.00

9.48

Extracted soybean

12.6

9.84

Fish meal

12.0

9.98

Total

100

100

Premix-mineral-vitamin provided at 0.3 % for all dietary treatments and contained vitamin A, 50,000 IU/100g; vitamin D3, 80,000 IU/100g, vitamin E, 50 IU/100g; vitamin K, 0.1%; vitamin B1, 0.03%, vitamin B2, 0.2%, B12, 0.0006%; Calcium carbonate, 0.5%; Phosphorus, 0.05%; Zn, 1.6%; Cu, 0.32%; Mn, 2.56%; I, 0.032%; Co, 0.016%, Se, 0.0064%

Feed for the experiment

All feed ingredients were bought on one occasion from feed store for throughout the experiment. The concentrate was formulated and contained 11.72 MJ ME /kg DM for bothCP and 18% CP for the 5-9 week old period and 10-14 week old period. Tra fish oil (TFO) was bought from a company in Angiang province, and finely mixed with the basal diet before feeding. All feed ingredients were analysed for chemical compositions (Table 2) before carrying out the trial.

Table 2. Chemical composition and ME value of feed ingredients in experiment (%DM)

Item

Broken
rice

Rice
bran

Maize

Extracted
soybean

Fish
meal

DM

86.4

90.3

83.1

89

88.6

OM

98.7

91.4

98.3

93.7

79.2

CP

8.61

9.76

8.3

44.7

62.3

EE

2.3

9.72

4.36

10.3

8.14

CF

0.60

14.3

2.95

9.48

0.82

NDF

4.90

23.3

16.8

23.2

6.73

ADF

7.75

16.7

4.22

19

5.02

Ash

1.3

8.64

1.75

6.31

20.8

Lys*

0.28

0.561

0.25

2.78

4.33

Met*

0.20

0.272

0.170

0.571

1.45

Ca*

0.06

0.171

0.221

0.282

5.11

P*

0.240

1.65

0.30

0.560

2.81

ME (MJ/Kg DM)

13.9

7.55

13.9

14.0

10.1

DM: dry matter, OM: organic matter, CP: crude protein, EE: ether extraction, CF: crude fiber, NDF: neutral detergent fiber, ADF: acid detergent fiber, Lys: lysine, Met: methionine, Ca: calcium, P: phosphor. ME: metabolizable energy (Janssen, 1989)



Table 3. Chemical composition of concentrate in two periods of the experiment (% DM)

Item, %

Concentrate

5-9 week old period

10-14 week old period

DM

88.1

88.2

OM

93.7

94.2

CP

19.9

17.8

EE

6.08

5.93

CF

5.53

5.53

NDF

12.7

13.1

ADF

11.2

10.7

Ash

6.28

5.83

Lys*

1.160

1.01

Met*

0.421

0.382

Ca*

0.731

0.630

P*

0.970

0.931

ME (MJ/kg)

11.7

11.7

Housing and management

House for birds was made by wood and iron sheets. Experimental birds were raised in pens with 3.0 m2/10 birds, which were surrounded by wood, plastic net and its floor was overlaid with 20 cm of sand and rice huts layer in its surface for bedding. Feeders and drinkers were put in each pen, cleaned daily every morning and chicken litters were removed weekly.

The birds were fed 3 times daily at 7.00, 13.00 and 17.00h and the diets offered to the treatments were weekly adjusted according to actual feed intakes, and water being freely available.

Measurements taken

Daily intakes of feed and refusals were weighed daily.

Birds were weekly weighed and at the end of experiment.

Three days after finishing the experiment all the birds were slaughtered for the evaluation of carcasses and meat quality.

Chemical analyses

Feeds offered were analysed for chemical compositions following the procedures of AOAC (1990). NDF and ADF analysis was according to Van Soest et al (1991). ME was calculated following the formula suggested by Janssen (1989). Representative samples of broken rice, rice bran, maize, fish meal and extracted soybean were analysed for lysine and methionine (Procedure of 994.12, AOAC, 2000).

Statistical analysis

Data were analysed using the General Linear Model (GLM) of Minitab software (Minitab, 2010). Comparison of difference between treatments was done by Tukey method of Minitab (2010). Polynomial regression analysis was done with Microsoft Excel software


Results and discussion

Growth performance and feed conversion

There were curvilinear responses showing a reduction in feed intake and improvement in growth rate and in feed conversion as the level of tra fish oil on the diet was increased with optimum results when the Tra fish oil level was6% (Table 4; Figures 1-3 3).

Table 4. Mean values for DM intake, daily weight gain and feed conversion according to level of supplementation of the diet wit tra fish oil

Item

Treatment

SE

p

TFO0

TFO2

TFO4

TFO6

TFO8

DM intake, g/d

55.0a

54.7a

54.1ab

53.3bc

52.5c

0.307

0.001

Initial live weight, g

293

292

293

292

293

0.151

0.920

Final live weight, g

1,522c

1,588b

1,620ab

1,659a

1620ab

13.1

0.001

Weight gai, g/dn

17.6c

18.5b

19.0ab

19.5a

19.0ab

0.190

0.001

FCR#

3.13a

2.96ab

2.86bc

2.73c

2.77c

0.042

0.002

a b c Mean values with different superscripts within the same row are different at p<0.05 # DM intake: live weight gain



Figure 1. Effect of level of Tra fish oil DM intake of Noi chicken Figure 2. Effect of level of Tra fish oil on weight gain of Noi chicken

Figure 3. Effect of level of Tra fish oil on feed conversion of Noi chicken
Carcass quality

There were curvilinear responses in carcass quality as represented by the relative propprtions of breast and thigh meat (Table 5; Figures 4 and 5).

Table 5. Caracass values of Noi chicken supplemented TFO in diets (g/bird)

Item

Treatment

SE

p

TFO0

TFO2

TFO4

TFO6

TFO8

Slaughter weight, g

1,527b

1,601ab

1,632ab

1,719a

1,641ab

30.1

0.014

Carcass weight, g

965b

1,017ab

1,042ab

1,101a

1,048ab

24.6

0.033

Carcass, %

63.2

63.5

63.8

64.0

63.9

0.601

0.875

Breast weight, g

235b

251b

256ab

271a

259ab

8.06

0.023

Breast meat, g

180b

200b

206ab

220a

209ab

8.15

0.037

Breast meat, %

18.7

19.7

19.8

20.0

19.9

0.832

0.987

Thigh weight

336b

357ab

369ab

406a

385ab

6.25

0.001

Thigh meat weight, g

228b

241ab

253ab

284a

272ab

8.52

0.016

Thigh meat,%

20.4

20.7

23.1

25.6

24.8

0.441

0.432

abc Mean values with different superscripts within the same row are different at P<0 05



Figure 4. Effect of level of Tra fish oil on percent breast muscle in the carcass of Noi chicken Figure 5. Effect of level of Tra fish oil on percent thigh muscle in the carcass of Noi chicken
Chemical composition of the Noi chicken meat

Supplementation with Tra fish oil did not affect the protein and fat content of the breast muscle bird led to linear increase in the ash content. (Table 6).

Table 6. Chemical compositions (% in DM) of breast meat of Noi chicken fed increasing levels of Tra fish oil

Item

Treatment

SE

p

TFO0

TFO2

TFO4

TFO6

TFO8

DM

26.6

26.1

26.5

26.1

26.1

0.410

0.764

OM

99.1

99.0

98.9

98.9

98.8

0.173

0.676

CP

20.0

20.1

20.5

20.8

20.4

0.321

0.432

EE

3.75

3.87

3.37

3.26

3.61

0.221

0.330

Ash

0.931

0.962

1.11

1.09

1.23

0.172

0.731


Conclusion


References

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