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Effects of fresh garlic supplement on growth performance and blood chemistry of Noi chicken

Pham Tan Nha, Nguyen Thi Kim Dong1 and Le Thu Thuy

Cantho University, Cantho City, Vietnam
ptnha@ctu.edu.vn
1 TayDo University, Cantho City, Vietnam

Abstract

A study was conducted to evaluate the effect of fresh garlic supplement on the growth performance of Noi chicken in 6-13 weeks old period. It was a completely randomized design with 5 treatments corresponding to 5 fresh garlic supplement levels and 4 replications with 10 birds per experimental unit. The treatments were the different fresh garlic supplement levels of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 % (weight of water) to mix in water. Corresponding to the G0, G1, G2, G3 and G4 treatments. The results showed that the daily intakes of DM, OM, CP and EE were significantly higher (P<0.05) for the 3 last treatments (the G2, G3 and G4 treatments). The significantly higher daily weight gain, final live weight and the lower FCR were found for the G3 treatment (P<0.05). The fresh garlic supplement in the diets of Noi chicken improved the carcass, breast meat and thigh meat weights (P<0.05). The adding fresh garlic into the drinking water the triglyceride and total cholesterol index in the blood of Noi chicken decreases, which is good for the health of chicken. Consumers using low triglyceride and total cholesterol chicken meat will be good for their health as well.

It was concluded that fresh garlic supplementation in the drinking water at a level of from 3 to 4 % fresh garlic improved growth performance for growing Noi chicken production. It showed that fresh garlic made quantification of triglycerid and quantification of total cholesterol in chicken blood decrease. Females had better levels of triglycerides and cholesterol in the blood than males in the same experiment.

Key words: fresh garlic, triglyceride and cholesterol


Introduction

Noi chicken is originally Vietnamese local breed, which has been popularly raised in the Mekong delta of Vietnam. It can tolerate the harsh conditions and low quality diets, however it gives good meat with more than double price as compared to commercial chicken (Pham Tan Nha, 2019). Garlic additives in diets give better health and meat quality of chicken. It is concluded that supplementation of garlic improves the performance of broilers when added at the level of 1% of broiler ration and could be a viable alternative to antibiotic growth promoter in the feeding of broiler chicken (Issa & Omar, 2012).

In recent years some plant additives such as garlic, ginger, etc, in diets for feeding gave better health, improved growth rate and carcass quality of chicken. The results of the recent study are in agreement with the previous findings by Singh et al, (2015), who reported garlic powder supplementation in basal diet of broiler chicken significantly increased the body weight gain and feed conversion ratio. Okoleh et al, (2014) also observed that the birds supplemented garlic had better feed conversion ratio (FCR) than those in control group (2.17 vs 2.53).

Garlic has the effect of reducing bad cholesterol, while increasing good cholesterol, helping the body remove plaque on the walls of blood vessels. Garlic has the effect of reducing blood fat, inhibiting the accumulation of platelets, preventing the formation of blood clots.

Therefore, garlic has the effect of preventing cardiovascular disease. Garlic is used as an antidote, expectorant, diuretic, anthelmintic, digestive booster, vitamin deficiency. In addition, this medicinal herb is also used to treat respiratory diseases, skin antiseptics, colds.

The objective of this study to determine optimum level of fresh garlic supplement in water on growth performance, blood chemistry and carcass quality of growing Noi chicken were raised under the conditions of the Mekong delta of Vietnam for the useful recommendations to the producers.


Materials and methods

Location and climate of the study area

Experiment was conducted from January to May in 2021, at a private farm (a householder) in Vinh Long province. The chemical analysis of feeds was done at the laboratory of the Department of Animal sciences. Faculty of Agriculture of Can Tho University.

Experimental animals

One day old-Noi chicken were bought from a Noi breeding farm in Long An province. Chicks from 2 to 28 days were fed special concentrate pellet (20% CP). Chicks from 29 to 35 days were fed concentrate pellet and supplemented a small amount of experimental diets. The chicken at 36 days of age were introduced to the trial, all birds were vaccinated H5N1. Newcastle and some common diseases before using in the trial.

Experimental design and treatments

Two hundred Noi chicken at 6 weeks of age (395 9.60 g/bird) were allotted in a completely randomized design with 5 treatments and 4 replicates and 10 birds per experimental unit (balanced sex). The treatments were the different fresh garlic supplement levels of 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4% to mix in water (weight of water), corresponding to the G0 (basal water), G1, G2, G3 and G4 treatments, respectively). The trial lasted 8 weeks with Noi chicken from 6 to 13 weeks of age. Feed ingredients of diet was presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Feed ingredient composition of concentrate diet in the experiment

Feed

(%)

Feed

(%)

1

Rice bran

4.8

6

Premix vitamin

0.40

2

Maize

35.1

7

Premix mineral

0.50

3

Fish meal

10.4

8

CaCO3

0.49

4

Broken rice

36.2

9

DCP

0.51

5

Soybean extraction

11.6

Feeds and preparation of fresh garlic

Fresh garlic was bought at a supermarket, then peeled and cut into 3-4mm piece (or break it). After that, the fresh garlic was ground to garlic powder by meat grinder and then mix with water in proportion. All feed ingredients were bought in one occasion from feed store for throughout the experiment. The basal diet was formulated and contained 12.9 MJ ME/kgDM and 18% CP. Fresh garlic powder was finely mixed with the water following experimental design before drink water. Chemical compositions of fresh garlic, feed ingredients and basal diet were presented in Table 2 and 3.

Photo 1. Raw fresh garlic Photo 2. Minced fresh garlic


Table 2. Chemical compositions of fresh garlic (%)

Item

(%)

Water

65.0

Crude protein

1.5-2.1

Carbonhydrate

26-30

Glutamylcyteine

0.5-1.6

EE

0.1-0.2

CF

1.50

Saponin

0.11

Sulfur

0.23-0.37

Amino acids Cysteine Sulfoxide

0.6-1.9

Ash

0.70

Pham Tan Nha, 2020



Table 3. Chemical compositions of feed ingredients and basal diet (% DM)

Feed Item

Maize

Broken
rice

Rice
bran

Soybean
Extraction

Fish
meal

Basal
diet

DM

88.6

86.7

86.0

89.5

91.9

89.1

OM

98.6

99.5

89.6

94.8

78.1

91.8

CP

8.08

9.29

12.5

43.4

60.4

18.1

EE

4.85

0.82

18.1

1.22

12.7

4.00

CF

2.12

0.59

6.59

5.44

0.19

3.60

NDF

28.5

7.35

32.1

12.3

11.0

17.0

Ash

1.40

0.51

10.4

6.82

21.9

8.20

ME (MJ/kgDM)

13.9

13.5

13.0

10.3

12.6

12.9

DM: dry matter, OM: orgarnic matter, CP: crude protein, EE: ether extraction, CF: crude fibre, NDF: neutral detergent fibre, ME: metablolizable ernergy (Janssen et al, 1989)

Housing and management

House for birds was made by wood and tole. Experimental birds were confined in pens with 2.5 m2/10 birds, which were surrounded by wood, plastic net and its floor was overlaid with 20 cm of sand and rice straw layer in its surface for bedding. Feeders and drinkers were put in front of each cage. Feeders and drinkers were cleaned daily every morning and chicken litters were removed weekly. The birds were fed 3 times daily at 7.00, 13.00 and 17.00 h and feed offered to the birds was weekly adjusted by an increase from 5 % to 10% according to real feed intake. Birds were freely to access water. Water has been mixed with fresh garlic according to the ratio of the experiment (0; 1; 2; 3 and 4% fresh garlic).

Measurements

Daily intakes of feed and nutrients: feed and refusals were collected and weighed daily morning.

Daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio: the birds were weighed weekly and at the end of experiment.

Carcass values: after finishing 4 birds (2 male and 2 female) per each experimental unit were slaughtered for the evaluation of carcass traits. Body measurements of birds were described by Salomon (1996).

Chemical analyses

Feeds offered were analyzed for chemical compositions: DM, OM, CP, EE, CF, Ash. They were analyzed following procedures of AOAC (1990). NDF analysis was followed the Van Soest et al, (1991) and ME was calculated by Janssen (1989).

Statistical analysis

Data were analyzed by using General Linear Model (GLM) of Minitab progam 16.1.0 (Minitab. 2010) and the comparison of significant difference between two treatments was done by Tukey method of Minitab (2010).


Results and discussion


Table 4. Daily intakes of feed and nutrient of Noi chicken (g/bird)

Item

Treatment

SE

p

G0

G1

G2

G3

G4

DM

54.42c

53.95c

54.87bc

57.92a

58.5a

0.55

0.042

OM

49.96bc

49.53c

50.37b

53.17a

53.70a

1.90

0.035

CP

9.85b

9.76b

9.93ab

10.48a

10.59a

0.05

0.024

EE

2.18b

2.16b

2.19b

2.32a

2.34a

0.04

0.015

CF

2.15

2.17

2.22

2.25

2.26

0.03

0.06

NDF

9.25b

9.17b

9.33ab

9.85a

9.95a

0.08

0.017

Ash

4.46b

4.42b

4.49a

4.75a

4.70a

0.05

0.018

ME (MJ/kg/DM)

0.70b

0.69b

0.71b

0.75a

0.75a

0.01

0.025

a,b,c Mean values with different superscripts within the same row are different at P<0 05

Daily intakes of DM, OM, CP, EE and NDF were significantly lower (P<0.05) for the birds given G0 diet than for other diets with the highest values observed in bird group fed G3 and G4 diets. The DM and CP intakes in the present trial are higher than those of a previous study on Tau Vang chicken (45.9-49.4 g DM/day; 9.17-9.59 g CP/day, respectively) reported by Nguyen Thanh Nhan (2012). The ME intake was significantly higher for the birds in the G3 and G4 treatments (P<0.05) than for the birds in the G0, G1 and G2 treatments, possibly due to higher DM intake.

Table 5. Daily weight gain, final live weight and feed conversion ratio (FCR) of Noi chicken (g/bird)

Item

Treatment

SE

p

G0

G1

G2

G3

G4

Initial live weight

401

400

398

403

404

9.6

0.178

Final live weight

1295c

1335bc

1390b

1414a

1412a

4.15

0.001

Daily weight gain

15.96c

16.6bc

17.7b

18.1a

18.0a

0.29

0.007

FCR

3.41a

3.25b

3.10c

3.20c

3.25b

0.4

0.005

CP/ weight gain (g/kg)

656.3a

657.4a

633.0b

603.2c

608.5c

7.05

0.005

a. b. c Mean values with different superscripts within the same row are different at P<0 05

Table 5 shows that daily weight gain (DWG) was lower for the birds without supplementing fresh garlic (G0 treament) than those fed fresh garlic and the significantly higher result found in the G3 and G4 treaments (P<0.05). The explanation was that the birds in this treatment had higher DM, OM, CP, EE and ME intakes. The results of DM intake and daily weight gain in a current study are in agreement with the findings that supplementing 3% garlic powder (in DM) in diet for kids which improved feed consumption and weight gain (Okali Usur, 2020). The DWGs obtained are closed with the results of 17.5g-18.7 g/bird, but being slightly higher than the values of 15.3 -16.8 g/bird in previous trials on Tau Vang chicken (Huynh Thanh Yen, 2017; Nguyen Van Nhan, 2017, respectively).

Figure 1. The effect of fresh garlic on daily weight gain

Final live weights were significantly higher for the birds supplemented fresh garlic than that of those in the G0 treatment (P<0.05), resulting from higher daily weight gain. The final live weights in this trial are in a range of 1300- 1417g of a previous experiment on Tau Vang chicken (Nguyen Thanh Nhan, 2012). Results of CP consumption/weight gain were significantly lower for the birds in the G3 and G4 treatments (P< 0.05).

Figure 2. The effect of fresh garlic on FCR

FCR of Noi chicken was better in the G2 and G3 treatments (P <0.05), it could be due to higher daily weight gain. The results of FCR are consistent with the values of 3.24-3.53 reported by Pham Tan Nha (2019).

Effects of dietary different fresh garlic supplement on carcass quality of growing Tau Vang chicken

Table 6. Caracass values and internal organs of Tau Vang chicken supplemented ginger in diets (g.bird)

Item

Treatment

SE

p

G0

G1

G2

G3

G4

Slaughter live weight

1290b

1320a

1380ab

1410a

1405a

20.1

0.018

Carcass weight

898c

950bc

990b

1020a

1015a

33.0

0.037

% Carcass

69.6

71.9

71.7

72.3

72.2

1.98

0.745

Breast meat weight

169.5c

180.0bc

195.4b

214.8a

211.7a

9.44

0.004

% Breast meat

18.9

19.0

19.7

21.0

20.8

0.79

0.054

Thigh meat weight

115.8c

123.5b

133.7a

134.6a

133.0a

3.12

0.041

%Thigh meat

12.9

13.0

13.5

13.2

13.1

0.45

0.743

Heart weight

9.5

10.4

8.90

10.0

9.77

0.84

0.061

Liver weight

23.0

22.0

23.3

23.5

22.7

4.11

0.632

Cecal length. cm

13.5

13.9

13.3

12.8

13.1

1.05

0.745

a .b. c Mean values with different superscripts within the same row are different at P<0 05

Slaughter weights of chicken were correspondent to the final live weights. Carcass weight was significantly higher in the G3 and G4 treatments (P<0.05) (Table 6). Percentage of carcass was closed among the treatments (P> 0.05), these results are in a range of 69.6% - 72.3, published by Huynh Thanh Yen (2017). Breast meat and thigh meat weights were significantly highest in G2 and G3 treatments. Percentages of breast meat and thigh meat were resembled among the treatments (P> 0.05). All internal organs were not significantly different among the treatments (P>0.05).

Table 7. Blood biochemical indicators of Noi chicken supplemented fresh garlic in drinking water (mmol/L)

Item

Treatment

Normal index
of human

G0

G1

G2

G3

G4

Quantification of Triglycerid

0.98

0.76

0.63

0.54

0.36

0.46 - 1.88

Quantification of total cholesterol

3.7

3.2

2.8

2.6

2.4

3.9 - 5.2

HDL-C (High density lipoprotein Cholesterol)

2.54

2.95

2.14

3.22

3.1

> 0.9

LDL-C (Low density lipoprotein Cholesterol)

1.22

0.90

1.81

1.63

0.86

< 3.4

Quantification of Albumin (g/L)

16.50

15.7

15.2

14.3

13.6

34 - 48

Center Lab Vietnam of Cantho city

The Triglyceride index is high, it will affect the blood transport process that will cause many negative effects on health.

Fat accumulation in the walls of blood vessels for a long time will cause narrowing of the coronary arteries, causing heart attacks and strokes. If the Triglyceride index is high, often, the patient is at risk of atherosclerosis, high blood pressure, obesity, hyperlipidemia.

Figure 3. The effect of fresh garlic on quantification of triglyceride

The adding fresh garlic into the water, the Triglyceride index in the blood of local chicken decreases, which is good for the health of chicken. Consumers using low Triglyceride chicken meat will be good for their health as well. Triglyceride index was lowest in treatment G4 (0.36 mmol/L).

Figure 4. The effect of sex of chicken on quantification of triglycerid

Figure 4 shows that both roosters and hens decreased blood triglycerides when increasing the garlic content of the drinking water. However, when comparing between males and females, females had lower blood triglycerides than males in the same treatment.

Figure 5. The effect of fresh garlic on quantification of total cholesterol

Quantification of total cholesterol decrease from GO treatment to G4 treatment. It was highest at GO treatment (3.70 mmol/L) and It was lowest at G4 treatment (2.4 mmol/L). This showed that fresh garlic made quantification of total cholesterol in chicken blood decrease. HDL-C. LDL-C and Quantification of Albumin decrease from GO treatment to G4 treatment, it was lowest at G4 treatment (16.5 mmol/L. 15.7 mmol/L. 15.2 mmol/L. 14.3 mmol/L and 13.6 g/L; respectively).

Cholesterol is an essential and indispensable factor for the body. However, if the body is provided with too much cholesterol, unused cholesterol can accumulate in blood vessels. For a long time, it will form plaques, narrow and clog blood vessels, cause many cardiovascular disease and stroke risk.

The total cholesterol test index reflects the risk of cardiovascular disease. Therefore, the higher the total cholesterol test result is, the greater the risk of cardiovascular disease is.

When adding fresh garlic, the total cholesterol in the blood of local chicken decrease, which is good for the health of chicken as well as for human health when using this chicken meat.

The lowest total cholesterol in the treatment was G4 (2.4 mmol/L). It could have been explained as follows:

The saponins in garlic were active ingredients that create a link between bile salts and cholesterol in the intestinal tract. From there, bile salts will gradually form small micelles with cholesterol, creating favorable conditions for the absorption of all bad cholesterol. As a result, the amount of bad cholesterol in the intestinal wall is significantly reduced, thereby reducing the total cholesterol in the blood of chickens.

Figure 6. The effect of sex of chicken on quantification of total cholesterol


Conclusions


Acknowledgments

I am grateful to the JAPAN’s ODA Project for finance and gave me the opportunity to undertake this experiment.


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