|Livestock Research for Rural Development 32 (7) 2020||LRRD Search||LRRD Misssion||Guide for preparation of papers||LRRD Newsletter||
Citation of this paper
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of substitution of maize by fermented palm kernel meal on the performance of broilers. There were 5 treatments of fermented palm kernel cake replacing maize at 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60% of the diet, with each treatment replicated four times.
There were curvilinear responses in feed intake, live weight gain and feed conversion as the proportion of FPKM in the diet was increased. The optimum response appeared to be when the FPKM was about 30% of the diet.
Keywords: Aspergillus niger, Cellulomonas, maize, soybean
Indonesia imports large quantities of maize and soybean (300 tonnes/year). the staple components of feed for broilers. Reducing imports of feed ingredients is one way of reducing greenhouse gas emissions to which sea freight is a major contributor. A potential local feed ingredient that could be used to replace maize is palm kernel meal (PKM). PKM has high crude fibre content but this can be reduced by fermentation using Aspergillus niger and Cellulomonas (Leke et al 2013).
The birds used in this study were 100 day-old broiler chicks with an average weight of 38.7 ± 1.19 g. The treatments were levels of 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60% FPKM replacing maize (Table 2).
The PKM wast sifted to separate the meal from the remaining shells, then placed on the floor that had been coated with trash bags and sacks. Suspensions of Cellulomonas and molasses ere homogenized in a blender then added at 40 ml and 20 ml per 1 kg of PKM. The next step was to add Aspergillus oryzae at 9g per kg of PKM. The last step was putting the PKM in a sack with holes to allow entry of air and storing for 3 days at room temperature after which it was sun-dried (Sjofjan et al 2020).
|Table 1. Chemical composition of the feed ingredients (% air-dry basis)|
|Soya bean meal||89||37.6||5||5|
|Palm kernel meal||94||16||2.04||6.5|
|Table 2. Ingredient composition of the diet|
|FPKM replacing maize, %|
Vitamin premix (per kg of diet); vitamin A 12,500 IU; Vitamin D3, 2,500; Vitamin E 20 IU;
Mineral premix (Per kg of diet); Fe 70 IU, Zn, 90 IU; CU, 10 IU; Mn, 80 IU
|Table 3. Calculated analysis of the diets (%)|
|FPKM replacing maize, %|
|Dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF)|
Data were subjected to analysis of variance using the general linear model in the ANOVA program of the SAS Version 4.0 software. Sources of variation in the model were treatments and error.
The broilers were weighed at the beginning of the experiment, and every week thereafter until the end of the experiment.
There were curvilinear responses in feed intake, live weight gain and feed conversion as the proportion of FPKM in the diet was increased (Table 4; Figures 1-3). The optimum response appeared to be when the FPKM was about 30% of the diet. Similar findings were reported by Mirnawati et al (2020) feeding broilers with palm kernel meal fermented with Bacillus subtilis. The growth rate was enhanced with up to 30% of the fermented palm kernel meal in the diet but was depressed at higher levels.
|Table 4. Mean values for feed intake, live weight gain and feed conversion (FCR) in broilers fed increasing levels of FPKM replacing maize|
|Feed int., g||537||546||562||590||550||11.1||0.34|
ab Mean values in the same row without common superscript differ at p<005
FCR= Feed intake/lLW
|Figure 1. Effect of FPKM on feed intake||Figure 2. Effect of FPKM on live weight gain|
|Figure 3. Effect of FPKM on feed conversion|
This study was supported by funds provided by PUPT, grant number No.t332. 46lUN1 0.C 10/PN/201 9 with financial aid 2019. We would like to thank all of those with whom we had the pleasure to work during this project.
Adli D N and Sjofjan O 2018 Nutrient content evaluation of dried poultry waste urea molasses block (DPW-UMB) on In-vitro analysis. Sains Peternakan 16(2):50-53
Adli D N, Chi Y, Lee J W and Sjofjan O 2019 Supplementation Mannan-Rich Fraction (MRF) and/or Combination with Probiotic-Enhanced Water Acidifier on Dietary Female Broiler at 28 days as Natural Growth Promoters (NGPs). Research Journal of Advanced Engineering and Science 4(3): 427-429
Adli D N, Sjofjan O and Mashudi M 2017 Dried poultry waste urea molasses block (dpw-umb) as potential feed supplementation. Jurnal Agripet 17(2):144-149
Adli D N, Sjofjan O and Mashudi M 2018 Nutrient content evaluation of dried poultry waste urea-molasses block (dpw-umb) on proximate analysis. Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Peternakan 28(1):84-89
Adli D N, Sjofjan O and Mashudi M 2019 Nutrient content evaluation of dried of poultry waste urea-molasses block (dpw-umb) on proximate analysis. Jurnal Ilmu dan Teknologi Peternakan 6(2): 72-76
Leke J R, Sjofjan O and Najoan M 2013 Egg Internal Quality and n-3 Fatty Acids of Native Chicken Fed on Skipjack Fish (Katsuwonus pelamis) Industrial Waste Containing Feed. International Journal of Poultry Science 12(8): 484
Mirnawati, Ciptaan G and Ferawati 2020 Broiler performance on a diet containing palm kernel meal fermented with Bacillus subtilis. Livestock Research for Rural Development. Volume 32 Article #21. Retrieved May 21, 2020, from http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd32/2/mirna32021.html
Sjofjan O and Adli D N 2020 Effect of Dietary of Supplementation Mannan-Riched Fraction (MRF) and Probiotic-Enhanced Liquid Acidifier on the Growth Performance, Serum Blood Biochemistry, and Intestinal Properties of Broilers. In IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science (Vol. 478, No. 1, p. 012066). IOP Publishing
Sjofjan O, Adli D N, Hanani P K and Sulistiyaningrum D 2019 The utilization of bay leaf (SyzygiumpolyanthumWalp) Flour in feed on carcass quality, microflora intestine of broiler. International Journal of Engineering Technologies and Management Research 6(11): 1-9
Sjofjan O, Adli D N, Natsir M H and Kusumaningtyaswati A 2020 Pengaruh kombinasi tepung kunyit (Curcuma domestica Val.) dan probiotik terhadap penampilan usus ayam pedaging. JNTTIP (Indonesianese) 2(1): 19-24
Sjofjan O, Natsir M H, Adli D N, Adelina D D and Triana L M 2020 Effect of symbiotic flour (Lactobacillus sp. and fos) to the egg quality and performance of laying hens. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science Volume 465: 012-033
Widiyawati I, Sjofjan O and Adli D N 2020 Peningkatan kualitas dan persentase karkas ayam pedaging dengan subtitusi bungkil kedelai menggunakan tepung biji asam (Tamarindus indica L) fermentasi. Jurnal nutrisi ternak tropis (Indonesianese) 3(1): 35-40
Received 21 May 2020; Accepted 2 June 2020; Published 1 July 2020
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