Livestock Research for Rural Development 32 (7) 2020 LRRD Search LRRD Misssion Guide for preparation of papers LRRD Newsletter

Citation of this paper

Use of Pistia stratiotes in diets of Kampong chicken

Agus Setiadi, Siswanto I Santoso, Suryani Nurfadillah, Kadhung Prayoga, Edjeng Suprijatna1, Teysar A Sarjana1 and Hadi Sasana2

Agribusiness Program, Faculty of Animal and Agricultural Sciences, Diponegoro University, Indonesia
agus_setiadi2006@yahoo.co.id
1 Animal Science Program, Faculty of Animal and Agricultural Sciences Diponegoro University, Indonesia
2 Faculty of Economics and Business, Diponegoro University, Indonesia

Abstract

This study was on the use of Pistia stratiotes meal in diets of Kampong crossbred chicken (KCC). 140 KCC 3-week old chicken with average body weight of 199 27.9 g were allocated in a Randomized Block Design to 4 treatments and 5 replications. The treatments were rations containing 0, 6, 12 or 18% Pistia stratiotes with 7 chickens in each treatment-replicate

Dried Pistia stratiotes leaves can be included at up to 12% in the diet of Kampong chicken with no loss of performance in terms of weight gain and feed conversion and with benefits for human health as indicated by lower levels of cholesterol in the meat.

Keywords: alternative feed, water plants


Introduction

In Indonesia, the demand for local chicken meat is expected to continue to increase (Santoso and Setiadi 2016). Kampong Chicken Crossbred (KCC) is the popular local chicken raised in Indonesia. There is an increasing demand for KCC meat from 34,000,000 kg in 2017 to 37,450,000 kg in 2018. Based on the data, the demand for KCC meat is still considerably high.

Photo 1. Kampong Chicken Crossbred

Setiadi et al (2016) stated that KCC plays an important role in rural areas in Indonesia. One of the problems in KCC raising is feed. The KCC rearing system is faced with high cost of feed, as the main ingredients such as maize and soybean meal are still imported from other countries.

Duckweed as an alternative feed for poultry has been studied by many researchers (Becerra et al 1990; Becerra et al 1995; Leng et al 1995; Hang 2013; Men et al 1995; Sugiharto et al 2019). Pistia stratiotes is another water plant that can be considered as a alternative feed ingredient for poultry. P istia stratiotes are plants floating on the surface of the water—stoloniferous herbal plants—that are commonly found in stagnant water. In Indonesia, these plants are known as water cabbage. P istia stratiotes reproduction runs rapidly with vegetative propagation by releasing stolons. The seasons plant density which varies from less than 100 per m2 to more than 1,000 per m2 (Langeland et al 2008). Some studies were conducted on utilizing water plant (Alalade et al 2006; Amerah et al 2013; Anderson et al 2011; Dwiloka et al 2015; Leterme et al 2009; Leterme et al 2010; and Mukherjee 2010). Pistia stratiotes has potential as a substitute for the main ingredient of feed, mainly due to their high content of protein.

Photo 2. Pistia stratiotes

The content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in aquatic plants is thought to be quite high, according to the study of Gena et al (2014). This is also in line with the findings of Santoso et al (2017), which identified the nutritional content of Pistia stratiotes as 16.0% crude protein, 5.10% crude fat, 11.1% fiber and 22.2% ash.

The s present study aimed to determine the effect of the use of Pistia stratiotes (Pistia stratiotes) meal in feed on the technical performance performance of KCC.


Materials and methods

This study was conducted in the Faculty of Animal and Agricultural Sciences, Diponegoro University for 7 weeks. Pistia stratiotes was harvested from Rawa Pening lake, Semarang district. The leaves were dried with sunlight for 3 days then ground to a fine powder prior to analysis (Table 1)

Table 1. Proximate compositions of Pistia stratiotes

Compositions (%)

Pistia stratiotes,
leaf meal

Moisture

5.61

% in DM

Crude protein

15.1

Crude fat

3.61

Crude fiber

14.3

Ash

35.4

140 KCC at the age of 3 weeks old, with average body weight of 199 27 g were allocated to 4 diets (Table 2) containing 0, 6, 12 or 18% P Pistia stratiotes (DM basis) with 7 chickens in each treatment-replicate. Feed and water were given ad libitum.. Body weight measurements were carried out every week

Table 2. Composition of diets

Level of Pistia stratiotes, %

0

6

12

18

Feed ingredients

-----% -----

Maize

55.0

52.9

51.1

50.5

Soybean meal

15.8

15.4

14.3

13.0

Rice bran

14.8

13.7

12.4

10.0

Pistia stratiotes

0

6.0

12.0

18.0

Fish meal

6.0

5.5

5.5

5.5

Coconut oil

0.5

0.5

0.5

0.5

CaCO3

2.0

1.1

1.0

0.2

Premix

2.1

1.6

1.4

1.0

Methionine

1.6

1.6

0.6

0.4

Lysine

2.2

1.7

1.2

0.9

Analysis (% in DM)

Crude protein

17.22

17.35

17.45

17.46

Crude fat

5.17

5.03

4.86

4.62

Crude fiber

6.99

7.41

7.78

7.83

Methionine#

1.80

1.80

0.90

0.72

Lysine#

2.56

2.15

1.74

1.50

Ca

2.51

1.85

2.01

1.49

P

0.51

0.50

0.50

0.48

# Methionine and lysine were calculated based on the needs of broiler according to the Indonesian National Standard

Lipid profile of KCC meat
Total cholesterol

Cholesterol was analyzed after hydrolysis and enzymatic oxidation by cholesterol reagent kit (Ref 10028) from GmbH65205 Wiesbaden Germany using the CHOD-PAP method. This is an enzymatic colorimetric test.

HDL-cholesterol

Analysis of HDL-plasma cholesterol was determined in the supernatant after entrifugation by the HDL-CHOL RE (Ref 10018) reagent from Wiesbaden GmbH-65205 Germany.

LDL-cholesterol

LDL-cholesterol level was determined using the formula:

LDL = KT-HDL-TG / 5

Where:

KT = total cholesterol

TG = triglyceride

HDL = HDL-cholesterol

LDL = LDL-cholesterol

Triglyceride

Plasma triglyceride analysis was determined by the TG reagent kit (Ref 10720P) from GmbH-65205 Wiesbaden Germany using the GPO-PAP method This is an enzymatic colorimetric test.

Antioxidant activity

Antioxidant activity of KCC meat was assessed using the DPPH free radical assay (Fasseas et al 2008). The samples were reacted with the stable DPPH radical in an ethanol solution. The reaction mixture consisted of 0.5 mL of the sample, 3 mL of absolute ethanol, and 0.3 mL of DPPH radical solution in 0.5 ml ethanol. The antioxidant activity was presented in percent of inhibition.

Data Analysis

The data obtained were analyzed by the ANOVA program in the as tested by analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the SPSS version 20 program. Regression analysis was used to determine the effect of increasing level of Pistia stratiotes on performance parameters.


Results and discussion

Feed intake was increased linearly as the proportion of P istia stratiotes in the diet was increased (Table 3; Figure 1). This was reflected in greater weight gain (Figure 2) but with no change in feed conversion (Table 3).

Table 3. Chicken performance

Items

Pistia stratiotes in the diet (%)

SEM

p value

0

6

12

18

Feed consumption (g/bird)

395a

401a

445b

448b

49.8

<0.05

Weight gain (g/bird)

269a

274a

308b

295ab

64.9

<0.05

FCR

1.47

1.46

1.44

1.52

0.03

0.20

Final weight (g/bird)

689a

681a

738b

689a

53.2

<0.05

FCR Feed intake/weight gain



Figure 1. Feed intake of KCC with Pistia
stratiotes
in the ration
Figure 2. Weight gain of KCC with Pistia
stratiotes
in the ration

All indices in the lipid profile decreased as the concentration of Pistia stratiotes in the diet was increased (Table 4; Figures 3-6). The antioxidant level increased with up to 9% Pistia stratiotes in the diet then decreased (Figure 7).

Increasing plant fiber in the diet reduces the absorption of glucose in the intestinal tract and this lowers the blood insulin level, leading to an increased level of glucagon and triggering lipolysis in the tissues (Reimer et al 2012) leading to lower levels of cholosterol as observed in this study  Dwiloka et al (2015) also stated that increasing plant fiber in feed could reduce cholesterol levels in duck meat.

Table 4. Mean values for lipid profile in the meat of Kampong chicken

Items

Pistia stratiotes in the diet (%)

SEM

p value

0

6

12

18

Cholesterol (mg/100g)

130a

83b

87.1b

79c

10.8

<0.01

HDL (mg/100g)

30.2a

24.4b

27.4ab

11.1c

0.86

<0.05

LDL (mg/100g)

56.3a

31.1b

32.1b

30.8b

3.37

<0.05

Triglyceride (mg/100g)

332 a

257b

189c

167c

9.49

<0.01

Antioxidant (%)

8.9 a

13.2b

13.1b

8.3a

0.42

<0.05

abc Means in the same row without common superscript differ at p<0.05



Figure 3. Total cholesterol in meat of KCC with
Pistia stratiotes in the diet
Figure 4. Triglyceride in meat of KCC with
Pistia stratiotes  in the diet


Figure 5. HDL cholesterol of KCC with
Pistia stratiotes in the diet
Figure 6. LDL cholesterol of KCC with
Pistia stratiotes in theration

Figure 7. Antioxidant levels in the meat of KCC with
Pistia stratiotes  in the diet


Conclusions


References

Alalade O A and E A Iyayi 2006 Chemical compostion and the feeding value of Azolla (Azolla pinnata) meal for egg type chicks. International Journal of Poultry Science, 5 (2) 137-141. https://www.iiste.org/Journals/index.php/FSQM/article/view/34495

Amerah A M, A Quiles, P Medel, J Sanchez, M J Lehtinen, and M I Gracia 2013 Effect of pelleting temperature and probiotic supplementation on growth performance and immune function of Kampongs fed maize/soy-based diets. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 180: 55-63. http://animalnutrition.dupont.com/fileadmin/user_upload/live/animal_nutrition/documents/open/Effect_of_pelleting_temperature_and_probiotic_supplementation_corn_maize_diets_broilers_fed_maize_corn.pdf

Anderson K E Z, A M Stomp, and J Chang 2011 Duckweed as a feed ingredient in laying hen diets and its effect on egg production and composition. International J. of Poult. Sci., 10(1): 4-7. https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ijps.2011.4.7

Becerra M, Murgueitio E, Reyes G and Preston T R 1990 Azolla filiculoides as partial replacement for traditional protein supplements in diets for growing-fattening pigs based on sugar cane juice. Livestock Research for Rural Development, Volume 2, Number 2. https://lrrd.cipav.org.co/lrrd2/2/maricel.htm

Becerra M, Ogle B, and Preston T R 1995 Effect of replacing whole boiled soya beans with azolla in the diets of growing ducks. Livestock Research for Rural Development. Volume 7, Number 3. http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd7/3/7.htm

Dwiloka B, A Setiadi, S I Santoso, E Suprijatna, and S Susanti 2015 Effects of duck feed supplemented with invasive giant salvinia (Salvinia molesta) on duck meat characteristics. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 39: 668-675. http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/veterinary/issues/vet-15-39-6/vet-39-6-5-1411-52.pdf

Fasseas M K, Mountzouris KC, Tarantilis P A, Polissiou M, and Zervas G 2008 Antioxidant activity in meat treated with oregano and sage essential oils. Food Chemistry 106: 1188-1194. https://www.tib.eu/en/search/id/elsevier%3Adoi~10.1016%252Fj.foodchem.2007.07.060/Antioxidant-activity-in-meat-treated-with-oregano/

Gena F, L D Mahfudz and Sumarsono 2014 Utilizing Salvinia molesta as Alternative Protein Source in Broiler Diet and the Effect on Performance, Breast Muscle and Abdominal Fat. IOSR Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Science, 7(7): 46-52. https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/89b3/2414587c6f6f9c9afcb42de17391650b2ebd.pdf

Hang D T 2013 Effect of offering fresh duckweed (Lemna minor) to chickens fed restricted levels of maize meal and protein concentrate in confinement. Livestock Research for Rural Development, Volume 25, Number 6. http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd25/6/hang25101.htm

Langeland K A, H M Cherry, C M McCormick, and K A Craddock Burks 2008 Identification and Biology of Nonnative Plants in Natural Areas of Florida, 2nd edition. SP-257. Gainesville: University of Florida Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences. http://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/publications/identification-biology-of-non-native-plants-in-floridas-natural-areas/

Leng R A, Stambolie J H and Bell R 1995 Duckweed - a potential high-protein feed resource for domestic animals and fish. Livestock Research for Rural Development, Volume 7, Number 1. http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd7/1/3.htm

Leterme P, Angela M L, Jaime E M, Jeimmy S, Carlos A B, and Wolfgang B S 2009 Nutritional value of aquatic ferns (Azolla filiculoides Lam. And Salvinia molesta Mitchell) in pigs. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 149: 135-148. https://sciencedirect.proxy.undip.ac.id/science/article/pii/S0377840108001478

Leterme P, A M Londono, D C Ordonez, A Rosales, F Estrada, J Bindelle and A Buldgen 2010 Nutritional value and intake of aquatic ferns (Azolla filicuides Lam. And Salvinia molesta Mitchell.) in sows. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 155: 55-64 https://sciencedirect.proxy.undip.ac.id/science/article/pii/S0377840109003186

Men B X, Ogle B and Preston T R 1995 Use of duckweed (Lemna spp) as replacement for soya bean meal in a basal diet of broken rice for fattening ducks. Livestock Research for Rural Development, Volume 7, Number 3. http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd7/3/2.htm

Mukherjee, P Kalita, B G Unni, S B Wann, D Saikia, and P K Mukhopadhyay 2010 Fatty acid composition of four potential aquatic weeds and their possible use as fish-feed neutraticals. Food Chemistry, 123: 1252-1252. https://www.academia.edu/3791529/Fatty_acid_composition_of_four_potential_aquatic_weeds_and_their_possible

Reimer RA, Maurer A D, Eller L K, Hallam M C, Shaykhutdinoy R, Vogel H J and Weljie A M 2012 Satiety hormone and metabolomic response to an intermittent high energy diet differs in rats consuming long-term diets high in protein or prebiotic fiber. J. Proteome Res 11: 4065–4074. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3411197/

Santoso S I and A Setiadi 2016 Profitable Utilization of Giant Salvinia, Salvinia molesta, as Local Duck Feed. International Journal of Poultry Science, 15(4): 121-125. https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=ijps.2016.121.125

Santoso S I, B Mulyatno, S Marzuki, E Suprijatna, and A Setiadi 2017 Economic Analysis and Egg Yolk Cholesterol of Local Ducks Fed a Salvinia molesta and Brotia costula Combination. Pak. J. Nutr., 16(9): 684-689. https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2017.684.689

Setiadi A, Santoso S I, Sumarsono, Mahfudz L D, and Susanto A B 2016 An economic analysis of kampung chicken production using the small water plant Azolla microphylla in their feed. Pak. J. Nutr., 15(3): 264-267. https://scialert.net/abstract/?doi=pjn.2016.264.267

Sugiharto S, T Yudiarti, I Isroli, E Widiastuti, H I Wahyuni, and T A Sartono 2019 Recent advances in the incorporation of leaf meals in broiler diets. Livestock Research for Rural Development 31 (7) 2019. http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd31/7/sgu_u31109.html


Received 1 April 2020; Accepted 5 June 2020; Published 1 July 2020

Go to top