Livestock Research for Rural Development 32 (12) 2020 LRRD Search LRRD Misssion Guide for preparation of papers LRRD Newsletter

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Influence of dietary silicon extracted from rice hulls on the bone breaking strength, growth performance and meat quality of guinea fowls

A A Khaskheli and L Chou1

Department of Animal Nutrition, Sindh Agriculture University, Tando jam
khaskhelias@gmail.com
1 Kasetsart University-Thailand

Abstract

Guinea fowls are flying birds thus suffer from many bones’ defects. Complications relating to bones affect the health of guinea fowls and cause significant economic loss. Keeping in view this threat current study was planned, whereby the main objective of research was to explore the influence of dietary silicon derived from rice hulls (SRH) on the bone breaking strength, growth performance and meat quality of guinea fowls. Total of 600, day old guinea fowls were used. Birds were assigned 5 groups. 4 groups of birds were provided 4, 8, 12 and 16 ppm SRH, respectively along with basal diets, while 1 group was kept as control and no supplementation of SRH was carried out. Our findings showed significantly (P ˂ 0.05) different values for tibia breaking strength, drip loss of thigh meat, shear force, thawing loss of breast meat in the group where 12 ppm dietary SRH was supplemented. Further, no significant (P > 0.05) difference appeared for bone breaking strength of femur among all groups. Study concludes that the dietary SRH act as an excellent mineral resource for guinea fowls. It supports the bones quality, growth performance and also improves the meat quality.

Keywords: bone, basal diet, carcass, mineral, silicon


Introduction

Thai government has planned to become kitchen of the world and thus has set very typical policies. Thai food industry is although much advanced but still lot of advancements are needed. Guinea fowl farmers are also continuously forced to take part in advancement of food industry. In order to cope with that farmers currently have set 2 major objectives, firstly increasing the meat yield and secondly improving bone breaking strength for bearing the heavy weight of birds (Shim et al 2012). By adopting a few approaches, growth performance, meat quality and weight gain of guinea fowls have been improved to some extent but the unprompted achieving of body weight has resulted higher rate of bones’ complications in guinea fowls. As the bones are mainly consist of minerals thus bones’ mineralization can make the bones harder and as a result can strengthen the skeleton. We postulate that the bone breaking strength, growth performance, meat quality of guinea fowls can be improved by mineral supplementation. In past studies calcium and phosphorus were the main target, but the trace minerals like silicon have always been ignored. A few scientists have recently found positive impact of silicon in broilers (Incharoen et al 2016), but in guinea fowls still research gap is there.

In Thailand several millions tons of rice is produced every year. During harvesting and processing of rice lot of by-products are produced which are not properly utilized. Rice hulls is also one of such ignored rice by-products, which needs spontaneous attention. It has been studied that rice hulls possess rich concentration of silicon. We hypothesize that the rice hulls can be a suitable raw feed material for guinea fowls. Current research project was therefore organized in order to study the influence of various levels of dietary SRH on bone breaking strength, growth performance and meat quality of guinea fowls.


Materials and methods

Extraction of SRH

Rice hulls were purchased from the commercial milling process in Phitsanulok province, Thailand. Firstly; rice hulls were burnt in electric furnace at the temperature of 700 C for 24 h. Burnt samples were let to be cool down and then 3.0N solution of sodium hydroxide was transferred into the prepared rice hulls ash. Contents were boiled in glass flasks on the temperature of 100 C for 3 h for producing a sodium silicate solution. Solution was filtered by filter paper and residues were washed with boiling water. The filtrate as well as residues were titrated with 5.0N sulfuric acid by constant stirring until pH 2 and then with ammonium hydroxide till pH 8.5. Residues on filter paper were dried in the hot air oven at the temperature of 120 C for 18 h. Dried samples were ground in the electric grinder and stored at room temperature till further use.

Experimental design and birds’ management

In-vivo research trial (No.691809) was approved by the Kasetsart University Animal Care and Use Committee (KUACUC). Total of Seven Hundred (N=700), day old guinea fowls were acquired from commercial hatchery (Charoen Pokphand Foods PCL., Lamphun, Thailand). Birds were raised in brooding zone. On day 10 th, total of Six Hundred (N=600) birds were randomly assigned to five treatment groups containing One Hundred and Twenty (n=120) birds in each. Birds of every group were segregated into 6 replicates having 20 birds in each. 1 group was considered as control and only basal diet was provided to the birds (Table 1), however birds in remaining 4 groups were fed 4, 8, 12, and 16 ppm SRH, respectively in addition to basal diets (Table 1). Diets were provided on ad libitum and water on free access thru the study period. Birds were raised for 15 weeks. Feed intake and weight gain by each bird were noted every week. In the end of experiment, 18 birds from each group (3 from each replicate), were slaughtered and carcass yield, meat quality and bone breaking strength were assessed.

Collection of data and measurements

Sampling procedures were as per Kasetsart University Animal Care and Use Committee (KUACUC). Carcasses of slaughtered birds were scalded in the warm water having temperature 60 5 C, de-feathered and eviscerated. Breast, fillet, wings and thighs+drumsticks were cut and weighed individually. Sample from breast and thigh meat were obtained from both sides, dissected, weighed, transferred to polyethylene bags and refrigerated at 4 C for 24 h. Refrigerated samples were individually weighed for drip loss. Drip loss was calculated as the percent of initial weight. Moreover, weighed quantity of fresh meat samples were placed in the freezer at -21 C for 48 h. After freezing, meat samples were refrigerated at 4 C for 24 h and weighed. Thawing loss was expressed in term of percentage. Shear force was recorded by cooking of de-skinned thigh and breast meat samples. Cooked sampled were examined by Texture Analyzer (model QTS20, Brookfield Instruments, Essex, UK). Further, bone samples were dried in hot oven at 95 C for 24 h. Dried samples examined by universal testing machine (model 441 Instron, Ltd., Buckinghamshire, England) (Incharoen et al 2016) and bone breaking strength of femur and tibia were measured.

Collected data were statistically analyzed by software, Statistix, version 8.1. One-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was applied and variations among the means were considered significant at (P < 0.05).

Table 1. Composition of the basal diet

Ingredients

Diet composition

Corn

13.50

Broken rice

44.47

Soybean meal (45% CP)

29.38

Palm oil

5.10

Fish meal (57% CP)

7.00

Calcium Carbonate

0.49

Dicalcium Phosphate

0.11

Concentrate mixture1/

0.21

DL-methionine

0.19

Total

100.00

Calculated chemical composition

Calcium

0.61

Phosphorus

0.50

Crude fiber

2.70

Crude fat

6.19

Crude protein

21.00

ME (kcal/kg)

3,000.00

1/ Supplied 100kg-1 of diet: vitamin D3(3,100,000IU), vitamin, A(16,000,000IU), vitamin K(36g), vitamin E(2700IU), vitamin B1(2.6g), vitamin B2(6.6g), vitamin B6(275.5g), vitamin B12(26mg), biotin(16.1mg), choline chloride(254g), nicotinic acid(36g), pantothenic acid(11.04g), Copper(1.8g), Iodine(450mg), Iron(1.9g), Manganese(60.4g), Zinc(46g), Selenium (165mg)


Results and discussion

Present research was carried out with the main objective of exploring influence of SRH on bone breaking strength, growth performance and meat quality of guinea fowls. Results relating to the growth performance of guinea fowls are given in Table 2. Results showed that feed intake, feed conversion ratio and weight gain were significantly (P < 0.05) improved in SRH treated groups compared to control. Moreover, prominent (P < 0.05) difference was found in dressing percentage of birds among all treatment groups compared to control, however breast, wing, fillet and thigh+drumstick weights showed non-significant (P > 0.05) variation (Table 3). These findings reveal that SRH is supportive to the guinea fowls. It helps in improving in the growth performance as well as carcass characteristics. These research findings are in line with Incharoen and his co-workers. They also found prominent progress in the growth performance and carcass characteristics of broilers when silicon was supplemented in the diet (Incharoen et al 2016). Likewise, in another study Bintas and her colleagues also revealed that dietary silicon improves the feed intake, feed conversion ratio and weight gain in broilers (Bintas et al 2014). In addition to that, silicon based clinoptilolite supplementation also possess positive impact on broilers’ productivity (Wu et al 2013). Few other scientists have also indicated that clinoptilolite helps in improving the feed efficiency, weight gain and health status of animals when provided in the diet (Tran et al 2015). Papaioannou et al (2004) also found agreeable findings when worked on supplementation of silicon in broilers and noticed reduced ammonia, improved feed conversion ratio and weight gain. Some others indicated that 70% silicon with other concentrate mixture increases digestibility of nutrients in swine (Yan et al 2010). These same kinds of findings were found in our study too. In our study improved weight gain and FCR were found which could be because of increased nutrients digestibility when SRH was supplemented in the diet.

Table 2. Influence of dietary SRH on growth performance of guinea fowls

Parameters

Control

Dietary SRH (ppm)

P-value

4

8

12

16

Feed intake (g/b)

5,745

4,918

4,760

4,866

4,979

0.146

Body weight (g/b)

2,619

2,908

2,777

2,880

2,828

0.598

Feed conversion ratio

1.56

1.83

1.80

1.81

1.80

0.320

Influence of dietary SRH on carcass characteristics, breast and thigh meat quality of guinea fowls was assessed and finding are given in Table 3. Breast meat showed significantly (P < 0.05) lower drip loss in SRH treated groups. Prominently (P < 0.05) lowest drip loss was found in meat of birds though were given 12 ppm SRH. Thawing loss also showed similar change pattern. It was found minimum in SRH treated groups compared to control, however significantly (P < 0.05) lower thawing loss found in 12 ppm SRH treated group contrast to other groups. Shear force showed maximum values in all SRH treated groups, but the significant (P < 0.05) difference occurred in the 12 ppm SRH treated group. Overall, thawing loss; drip loss and shear force of thigh meat showed non-considerable (P > 0.05) variation among all groups excepting 12 ppm SRH treated group, which revealed prominent variation (P < 0.05) contrast to other groups.

Table 3. Influence of dietary SRH on carcass characteristics and meat quality of guinea fowls

Parameters

Control

Dietary SRH (ppm)

P-value

4

8

12

16

Carcass characteristics

Dressing percentage

88.42

86.06

89.89

89.87

91.35

0.061

Breast

19.18

19.46

19.29

20.56

20.07

0.245

Fillet

4.59

4.49

4.69

4.62

4.67

0.220

Wing

8.95

8.91

8.62

8.92

8.60

0.187

Thighs + drumsticks

25.62

23.76

25.07

24.51

24.83

0.103

Breast meat quality

Thawing loss (%)

15.24bc

12.09ab

12.69ab

9.08a

18.81c

0.050

Shear force (kg)

6.35b

7.43b

7.49b

10.13a

7.19b

0.030

Drip loss (%)

15.13

14.80

14.25

10.09

14.32

0.092

Thigh meat quality

Thawing loss (%)

15.77

12.07

12.60

8.25

15.21

0.058

Shear force (kg)

9.90

8.08

9.92

10.30

9.60

0.328

Drip loss (%)

13.42ab

14.35ab

14.55ab

9.50a

15.26b

0.050

a-c Means within rows with different superscripts show significant difference (P < 0.05)

These findings are in agreement with Incharoen and his colleagues who indicated silicon an essential mineral for enhancing quality of meat. It decreases the thawing and cooking losses to 0.75 percent (Incharoen et al 2016). No doubt, silicon based products (72% silicon) also possess advantageous effect on the firmness of muscle but that phenomenon may be influenced by interaction or metabolism of ions and resultantly modification of minerals level in muscles (Yan et al 2010). Thus, our findings are in strong relation with SRH induced minerals reform in muscles which resulted improved texture as well as quality of meat.

Results of bone breaking strength are depicted in the Table 4. Femur possessed higher breaking strength in the group where 12 ppm SRH was supplemented, followed by 8, control, 16 and 4 ppm. Although means of all groups showed variation by value but statistically difference was non-significant (P > 0.05). On other hand, breaking strength of tibia bone showed significant difference in 12 ppm SRH treated group followed by 8, 4 and 16 ppm SRH. However in control group difference was non-significant (P > 0.05) compared to 16 ppm SRH treated group. Our results are in line with Short et al (2011), who found that higher silicon level is concerned to the bones and cartilages strength as well as birds’ production. Our findings are also in agreement with Jugdaohsingh et al (2004), who revealed significant reduction of lameness problems in broilers when silicon was provided in the diet.

Table 4. Influence of dietary SRH on bone breaking strength of guinea fowls

Treatment
groups

Bone breaking strength of femur

Bone breaking strength of tibia

Bone breaking
strength (N)

Bone breaking
strength/cross
section area ratio
(N/mm2)

Bone breaking
strength (N)

Bone breaking
strength/cross
section area ratio
(N/mm2)

Control

166.4dc

8.9dc

165.9d

9.89cd

4 SRH

165.2e

8.0e

170.5bc

10.2bc

8 SRH

167.2b

9.4ab

172.6b

10.8b

12 SRH

169.8a

9.8ab

198.9a

12.3a

16 SRH

166.8dc

9.0bc

160.5e

9.11de

SE

2.535

0.561

4.256

0.799

P-value

0.071

0.064

0.451

0.255

a-e Means within rows with different superscripts show significant difference (P < 0.05)


Conclusion


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