Livestock Research for Rural Development 2018, Volume 30, Number 7

Notes to Authors

LRRD is fully OPEN ACCESS, with no publication charges, on the principle that research findings related to sustainability of farming systems should be freely available in the public domain.
Papers may be copied and reprinted freely.


The LRRD Vision

The future requirements of society for food and energy can best be met from integrated small to  medium family farm systems in which:

·         most resources are produced locally, 

·          the direct and indirect use of solar energy is maximized,

·         all wastes are recycled;

·         the carbon footprint is negative; 

·         there are overall environmental and social benefits.


The LRRD mission

To promote local research on the:

(i)                 use of local resources for live stock production in ways that are non-competitive with human needs;

(ii)               development of systems for producing renewable energy by:  

a.       biodigestion of animal and human organic wastes;

b.      gasification of dry fibrous residues from crops grown primarily as food/feed for humans and live stock;

c.       increasing use of draft animal power

(iii)             promotion of indigenous live stock breeds that have high reproductive rates and adaptation to use of local feed resources and local climatic conditions;

(iv)             regeneration of soil fertility through promotion of tree crops and recycling of organic matter

(v)               development of  emerging markets for ecosystem services, such as carbon sequestration and nutrient sequestration.

(vi)             promotion of “farmer“  markets for food produced in environmentally  friendly and socially just, family-oriented small-scale farming systems

(vii)           improving the efficiency of use of water

(viii)    recycling of wastes


Guide to Authors

Papers should be sent by E-mail to the Senior Editor. reg.preston@gmail.com. If acknowledgement is not received within two weeks then authors should send a reminder to the Senior Editor with copy to preston@lrrd.org.

The papers should be sent by e-mail as an attachment, and with "LRRD" in the subject line. Email messages with attachments and unknown subject lines are not opened in view of virus risks.  

The principle tool for publishing the journal is Microsoft Office. This is the preferred format for receiving papers and short communications.

Authors should examine carefully  the Notes to Authors that appeared in the last issue of LRRD and strictly follow all the instructions.

Lack of respect of these instructions may lead to the rejection of the paper


Key words

Do not repeat the words already in the title of the paper. Search engines such as Google automatically search the title. Key words should draw attention to features of the paper not addressed in the title.  .


Body of Text

- For Page Set up Use: Paper size A4 and Margins 2.5 cm
- Use the font "Times New Roman" 12 pt.
- Do not use full word capitals for titles nor for names of authors.
- Include your e-mail address below your postal address in the Title
- Indicate the Keywords after the Abstract in alphabetical order
- Separate the Titles and associate-titles from the previous and next lines by an empty line, using the ‘return’ or ‘enter’ key
- Do not use numbers such 1.; 1.1.; 1.1.1.; to mark the Titles and Sub-titles.
- Separate each paragraph by an empty line, using the ‘return’ or ‘enter’ key
- Make sure the paragraphs are aligned to the left not  “justified”
- Do not use an indent in the beginning of each paragraph


In text and tables

Ensure that numbers in tables and in the text contain only three digits after or before "000"
eg:
234.21 becomes 234
1.2367 becomes 1.24
0.00032176 becomes 0.000322
0.01 should be 0.00712
for R2 only two digits after or before “00... ”
eg: R2 = 0.677 becomes R2 = 0.68


Graphics:

Where possible, please always supply in Excel the original spreadsheets including graphs and data which were used to produce graphics in the papers, since this allows us to produce a uniform look and maintain the quality of the finished journal. Within the graphics Font should be: Arial Regular – 10 pt. Use different colors for columns and trend lines NOT Black and White


Tables:

Please format them using the Table menu, and not Tabs and Spaces
- when using the tabular format please allot a new cell to each piece of data.
- include the title of the table as well as the notes at the bottom of table inside the Table itself not in the body of the text.
 - when comparing treatments
in a balanced design do not give SE of each mean. SEM of means is more appropriate with the exact probability as given by the statistics program. The SE of each mean is appropriate when nunbers in each mean are not equal.


Statistics

Avoid use of the term "significant". If "A" is greater than "B" then p <0.05 is understood and the exact level of probability  will be in the table.  The accepted symbol for probabiliity is p.  P is  for Phosphorus. Note:  p=0.065 but p<0.001.  A tendency for a difference to be significant is when p >0.05 and p <0.10 and the exact probability will be in the  text (eg: p=0.058).

There were numerical differences .... (..is not allowed)


Preparing the table in Microsoft Word:

Table 7: Mean values for gasifier characteristics using coconut shells-husks, cassava stems, mulberry stems and branches of Cassia stamea as feedstock

 

Cassia

Cassava

Mulberry

Coconut

SEM

Prob.

Biomass, kg

         

  Initial

36.7

32.3

33.7

34.4

1.3

0.21

  Final

4.93

1.9

0

3.07

2.19

0.49

  Consumption

36.9

35.1

40

36.4

2.9

0.69

Moisture, %

14

13.3

15.7

14

1.4

0.69

Density, g/litre

348a

97.0c

273b

128c

10.4

<0.001

Duration, h

3.91

3.67

4.09

4.02

0.328

0.81

Output, kwh

27.4

25.7

28.7

28.2

2.29

0.81

Conversion#

1.23

1.18

1.18

1.11

0.044

0.42

Efficiency##

0.187

0.204

0.204

0.217

0.0082

0.17

Biochar, g/kg biomass DM

109

128

109

137

16.5

0.58

# kg dry biomass/kwh; ## Assumes 15 MJ/kg biomass DM and 3.6 MJ/kwh of electricity

abc Means in the same row without common letter are different at P<0.05


Creating the final version of the table by eliminating the unnecesary lines and borders:


Table 7: Mean values for gasifier characteristics using coconut shells-husks, cassava stems, mulberry stems and branches of Cassia stamea as feedstock

Cassia

Cassava

Mulberry

Coconut

SEM

p

Biomass, kg

    Initial

36.7

32.3

33.7

34.4

1.3

0.21

    Final

4.93

1.9

0

3.07

2.19

0.49

    Consumption

36.9

35.1

40

36.4

2.9

0.69

Moisture, %

14

13.3

15.7

14

1.4

0.69

Density, g/litre

348a

97.0c

273b

128c

10.4

0<.001

Duration, h

3.91

3.67

4.09

4.02

0.328

0.81

Output, kwh

27.4

25.7

28.7

28.2

2.29

0.81

Conversion#

1.23

1.18

1.18

1.11

0.044

0.42

Efficiency##

0.187

0.204

0.204

0.217

0.0082

0.17

Biochar, g/kg biomass DM

109

128

109

137

16.5

0.58

# kg dry biomass/kwh; ## Assumes 15 MJ/kg biomass DM and 3.6 MJ/kwh of electricity
abc Means in the same row without common letter are different at P<0.05


References:

In the text, do not put a ‘coma’ between the name and the date. Do not put a ‘dot’ after ‘et al’. “et al” should be in regular font, not in italics.

Example: (Gueye et al 1998)

References should be set up with minimum punctuation but maximum detail of the actual citation. Abbreviations of journal titles should not be used. In the list of references, citations should include the appropriate "URL" for the article, when this URL is freely accessible. For example:

Cerón-Muñoz M F, Tonhati H, Costa C N, Rojas-Sarmiento D and Solarte Portilla C 2004 Variance heterogeneity for milk yield in Brazilian and Colombian Holstein herds. Livestock Research for Rural Development, Volume 16, Article #20 Retrieved June 1, 2004, from http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd16/4/cero16020.htm

Many Journals are at present accessible on the Web (do not indicate the URL of Journals that need a subscription or a payment!!). Here is a list (not limitative) of some Journals freely available:

Livestock Research for Rural Development: http://www.lrrd.org/

 

Tropical Animal Production: http://www.cipav.org.co/TAP/tapindex.htm

Journal of Animal Science: www.animalsciencepublications.org/publications/jas (for issues that appeared more than one year earlier!)


Journal of Dairy Science: http://jds.fass.org/ (for issues
that appeared more than one year earlier!)

 

Annales de Zootechnie (accessible through Animal Research site)

 

Animal Research: http://animres.edpsciences.org/

 

Pakistan Journal of Nutrition: http://www.pjbs.org/pjnonline/

 

Revista Brasileira de Zootecnia:  http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=1516-3598&lng=en&nrm=iso

 

Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal: http://revistas.ufba.br/index.php/rbspa/issue/archive

 

Archivos de Zootecnia: http://www.uco.es/organiza/servicios/publica/az/php/az.php

 

Most of FAO (http://www.fao.org) publications and
FAO/IAEA (http://www-naweb.iaea.org/nafa/index.html) publications

 

Check that the URL is complete (it means that it leads directly to the article, not to the Journal Home Page), is correct and is functioning. By clicking on it: it should lead you to the Web site.!

PLEASE:

- Use the Spell-Check tool in order to correct any spelling mistakes, and

- Ensure that references in the text are in the reference list and vice versa.

An easy way to check this latter point is to print the reference list and then from the beginning of the text to use the "FIND" command and type "19" and then "20". This will locate all the references assuming you have cited correctly the source including the date.

The reviewers appreciate the pressure put on academics to publish in order to maintain their positions. This very pressure should, however, encourage authors to be more rigorous in their presentation.  If they evince a lack of interest in accuracy they should not expect that increasingly frustrated referees, giving freely of their time and experience, should contain their frustrations and make the paper accurate for them.


Proof reading of papers:

Each paper as it is edited is being made available as a provisional "url" which is communicated to authors when the final version of their paper is ready in html format. Authors can then check the paper for possible errors or last minute corrections and inform the editors accordingly. Queries on the proofs made by the editors are indicated in "red" (suggested rejection) or "blue" (suggested additions or changes).

Authors sending corrections to the proofs should send an email to the Chief Editor in the following format:

Do not send a copy of the whole paper as this would require the editors repeating the whole process of conversion to HTML format, which can be quite time-consuming.


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