Livestock Research for Rural Development 22 (8) 2010 Notes to Authors LRRD Newsletter

Citation of this paper

Influence of organic and inorganic forms of trace minerals supplementation at different doses on daily weight gain and serum mineral levels in male calves

B M Bhanderi, A M Pande* and S Parnerkar**

Animal Nutrition Group, National Dairy Development Board, Anand-388 001 (Gujarat), India
bhanderi@nddb.coop  ,  bhanderi1971@gmail.com
* Department of Biochemistry & Biotechnology, College of Veterinary College and Animal Husbandry, Anand Agricultural University, Anand 388 110 (Gujarat), India
** Department of Animal Nutrition, Animal Nutrition Research Station, College of Veterinary and Animal Husbandry, Anand Agricultural University, Anand 388 110 (Gujarat), India

Abstract

The present study was carried out to assess the effect of organic and inorganic forms of trace minerals (Cu, Zn and Mn) at different dose levels on the growth performance of crossbred male calves. Twenty five male calves (7-10 months) were randomly distributed into 5 groups viz. C (Control), T1, T2, T3 and T4 consisting of five in each group. Inorganic trace minerals (Cu, Zn and Mn) were fed at 150% of the NRC requirements in T1 group and methionine-based organic trace minerals (MBOTMs) were supplemented at 100%, 50% and 25% of the NRC (1989) requirements in T2, T3 and T4 groups, respectively. In Control (C) group the trace element requirements were fulfilled through addition of inorganic salts of Cu, Zn and Mn. Effect of organic and inorganic trace minerals supplementation was assessed by body weight gain, average daily gain, serum major (Ca, P and Mg) and trace (Cu, Zn and Mn) mineral levels.

 

Result revealed that supplementation of MBOTMs at NRC dose level to male calves improved body weight gain and average daily gain as compared to the calves supplemented inorganic minerals at NRC (1989) dose level. Supplementation of MBOTMs at NRC dose level to male calves did not alter the serum macro-minerals (Ca, P and Mg) profile, but increased serum Cu, Zn and Mn after 75 days of feeding trial. It may be concluded that supplementation of MBOTMs at NRC requirement in male calves can improve the body weight gain than that of inorganic trace minerals.

Keywords: Body weight, copper, growth, manganese, serum minerals, zinc


Introduction

The role of trace minerals in animal production is an area of strong interest for producers, feed manufactures, veterinarians and scientists. Adequate trace mineral intake and absorption is required for a variety of metabolic functions including immune response to pathogenic challenge, reproduction and growth (Manspeaker et al 1987; Garg et al 2009). Dietary imbalances in one or more of the essential minerals are as dangerous as mineral deficiency (Underwood and Suttle 1999). Trace mineral deficiencies can occur as a primary deficiency when mineral intake is inadequate or as a secondary deficiency when other factors in the diet interfere with the absorption and metabolism of the concerned trace minerals (Olson et al 1999).

 

Minerals are supplied to the livestock through mineral mixture in the inorganic form. One of the major disadvantages of using such supplements is that the minerals from such sources are not fully absorbed due to antagonism and anti-nutritional factors present in the diet.  However, in recent years, chelated minerals are being supplemented in the ration as the bio-availability of these minerals is more than their inorganic forms (Spears 1989). By adhering closely to the recommended dietary levels for each of the trace minerals (NRC 1989), the production and other physiological problems associated with an impaired mineral metabolism may be avoided (Underwood and Suttle 1999).

 

Keeping above in the view, the present study was undertaken to test the efficiency of varying levels of organic minerals as compared to inorganic trace minerals on growth performance of male calves to assess the optimum level of supplementation. 

 

Materials and methods 

Animals and feeding management

 

Twenty five crossbred male calves of 7-10 months old having average body weight of 520.03 kg were taken in the present study. Prior to beginning of the study the calves were fed on good quality hay for 12-15 days adaptation to gradual start of concentrate feed (without trace minerals) and restricting quantity of hay intake. After 12-15 days of adaptation period the animals were divided equally into one control and four treatment groups (n=5 in each group) in such a way that average age and mean body weight was similar (P>0.05) amongst the groups. All the male calves were maintained under uniform conditions of feeding and management, by housing them in a well ventilated shed with facilities for individual feeding in a concrete manger. The calves were de-wormed with albendazole @ 10 mg/kg body weight, before the initiation of the study and thereafter at three months interval. The calves were also treated for ectoparasites, whenever necessary.

 

The basal ration was formulated to meet or exceed the requirements suggested by the NRC (1989). The mineral requirements, particularly that of the elements was met with sulphate salts of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and manganese (Mn). The treatment group fed with the basal ration was designated as the control. To assess the effect of a higher dose level of supplemental inorganic trace minerals the dose level of the said trace minerals was fed at 150% of the NRC requirements in T1 group. The organic forms of the said trace minerals were fed at three different dose levels, which may be expressed in terms of the NRC (1989) requirement as follows: T2: 100% of the NRC requirement, T3: 50% of the NRC requirement and T4: 25% of the NRC requirement. The selection of the dose levels was to assess whether a lower level of the MBOTMs can yield a response comparable to that yielded with the inorganic forms of supplemental trace minerals. The organic minerals for individual trace mineral chelates were prepared in the laboratory. Methionine was dissolved in 2:1ratio of mineral element (Cu, Zn and Mn) solution at alkaline pH and temperature not more than 70C. Precipitates, thus formed between amino acid and metal were filtered to remove un-reacted minerals and dried in hot air oven at 80C for 5-6 hours.   The male calves were individually fed according to their body weight to fulfill the nutrient requirements as per NRC (1989). Measured amount of concentrate was offered at 08:30 am daily. The roughage was given at the required amount into two equal proportions at 9:30 am and 4:30 pm daily, after chopping. Feed intake was adjusted according to the mean body weight of individual treatment groups every 30 days during the 120 days of experimental period. All the calves had free access to clean drinking water during the study.

 

Body weight of individual male calves was recorded at the start of the study and thereafter at 30 days intervals in the morning before feeding and watering in order to assess the changes in body weight and average daily gain.

 

Sample preparation and analytical methods

 

Extraction of trace minerals from feeds was done by dry ashing method (AOAC 1995). Oven dried, ground sample (1 g) was placed in a porcelain crucible and ignited at 500 C in a muffle furnace. The ash was dissolved in 5 ml of 5 M HCL by warming the solution and filtered the solution through Whatman filter paper no. 40 into 100 ml volumetric flask. The solution was diluted to volume with deionized water and mixed well. The extracted sample was analyzed for minerals, using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (OPTIMA-3300, Perkin Elmer).

 

Pre-supplemental (day 0) and post-supplemental (day 30, 60, 75 and 120) blood samples were collected in a vacuette with serum clot activator from the jugular vein of the male calves in the morning before offering feed. Serum sample was diluted to 1:50 with a 0.1% (w/v) lanthanum chloride solution, and the dilution ratio was adjusted to insure that concentrations fall within a suitable detection range. For determinations of copper, zinc and manganese, serum samples were diluted to 1:5 with de-ionized water.  Serum calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn) and manganese (Mn) were also estimated in Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy after 120 days of feeding and concentrations of Ca, P and Mg were expressed as mg/dl, whereas, concentrations of Cu, Zn and Mn were expressed in mg/dl. The data were analyzed statistically as per the Snedecor and Cochran (1994).   

 

Results and discussion

The major and trace mineral composition of dietary ingredients and basal ration is presented in Table 1.


Table 1.  Macro and micro-mineral composition of dietary ingredients and basal ration

Particular

De-oiled rice bran

Rice polish fine

Maize

grain

Wheat bran

Rapeseed
meal

Sunflower
meal

Basal ration

Ca, %

0.12

0.10

0.09

0.14

0.60

0.58

0.81

P, %

1.45

1.10

0.33

1.80

0.95

0.76

0.70

Mg, %

0.45

0.42

0.14

0.56

0.34

0.25

0.38

Cu, ppm

17.7

15.1

7.98

15.4

18.3

14.1

11.0

Zn, ppm

85.1

76.1

35.8

78.9

45.2

35.7

36.8

Mn, ppm

122

109

25.5

144

78.9

87.1

41.1


Macro and micro-minerals composition of experimental diets fed to different dietary treatments are given in Table 2.


Table 2.  Macro and micro-mineral composition of experimental rations fed to different dietary groups

Particular

Critical level

C

T1

T2

T3

T4

Ca, %

<0.30%

0.810.02

0.840.03

0.800.012

0.850.04

0.810.02

P, %

<0.25%

0.700.12

0.710.14

0.700.09

0.720.11

0.710.08

Mg, %

<0.20%

0.380.014

0.390.012

0.370.021

0.380.024

0.390.014

Cu, ppm

<8 ppm

20.950.70

25.90.67

20.90.54

14.10.65

12.00.47

Zn, ppm

<30 ppm

70.142.90

1141.89

70.02.92

57.03.98

46.91.82

Mn, ppm

<40 ppm

75.805.80

1066.01

74.73.49

56.84.13

49.82.65


Effect on daily weight gain

 

There was no significant difference (P>0.05) observed between the treatment groups in respect of initial body weight.  However, the total and daily body weight gain was significantly (P<0.05) higher in the T2 group followed by that in the T1, T3, T4 and control groups of calves. There was no significant variation observed between T4 and control group (Table 3).


Table 3.  Effect of trace mineral supplementation on weight gain of male calves

Attributes

Treatment groups

C

T1

T2

T3

T4

Initial body weight, kg

52.0

52.0

52.0

52.1

52.1

Final body weight, kg

72.4

79.8

87.3

76.8

72.7

Body weight gain, kg

20.5d

27.8b

35.3a

24.7c

20.6d

Average daily gain, g

171d

232b

294a

206c

172

a,b,c,dMeans bearing different superscripts in a row differ significantly at P<0.05


The present finding corroborated the finding of Garg et al (2008) who reported that organic minerals supplementation enhanced reproductive performance in dairy animals and average calf performance like body weight gain compared to inorganic trace minerals feeding (Spears 1996). Similar were finding of Lee et al (2002) in steers (Cu supplementation), Underwood and Suttle (1999) in ruminants (Cu, Zn and Mn supplementation), Gowda et al (2004) in anestrous crossbred cows. 

 

Effect on serum minerals level

 

The effect of different forms and dose levels of supplemental trace minerals on serum concentration of Ca, P and trace minerals in the experimental male calves are presented in Table 4.


Table 4.  Effect of trace mineral supplementation level and source on serum minerals level of male calves

Attributes

Days after treatment

Treatment groups

C

T1

T2

T3

T4

Ca, mg/dl

0

10.2

9.98

10.1

11.0

10.5

30

10.3

9.97

9.95

11.04

10.6

60

10.5

10.5

10.0

11.0

10.6

75

10.9

10.7

9.94

11.0

10.9

120

11.1

10.7

9.97

11.1

10.9

P, mg/dl

0

4.64

4.71

4.65

4.56

4.69

30

4.61

4.88

4.62

4.55

4.70

60

4.68

4.85

4.66

4.62

4.75

75

4.65

4.72

4.78

4.57

4.74

120

4.67

4.70

4.77

4.65

4.80

Mg, mg/dl

0

2.87

2.98

2.90

2.88

2.99

30

2.87

2.90

2.88

2.78

2.98

60

2.86

2.95

2.90

2.91

2.95

75

2.88

2.93

3.04

2.85

2.97

120

2.90

2.92

3.11

2.95

2.94

Cu, mg/ml

0

0.35

0.36

0.40

0.37

0.41

30

0.34

0.36

0.41

0.39

0.42

60

0.36

0.37

0.45

0.38

0.45

75

0.56bc

0.62b

0.86a

0.63b

0.55c

120

0.67bc

0.72b

0.95a

0.72b

0.65c

Zn, mg/ml

0

0.58

0.57

0.59

0.56

0.57

30

0.54

0.56

0.59

0.57

0.58

60

0.56

0.58

0.60

0.56

0.58

75

0.68c

0.86b

1.27a

0.96b

0.71c

120

0.78c

0.97b

1.37a

1.07b

0.81c

Mn, mg/ml

0

0.05

0.06

0.04

0.05

0.06

30

0.051

0.062

0.042

0.05

0.062

60

0.055

0.063

0.041

0.055

0.065

75

0.081c

0.10b

0.15a

0.11b

0.10bc

120

0.12c

0.15b

0.20a

0.18b

0.17bc

a,b,cMeans bearing different superscripts in a row differ significantly at P<0.05


The serum concentrations of Ca, P and Mg were similar across the dietary treatment groups. It was further revealed that there was no significant effect (P>0.05) of supplemental trace minerals on serum concentration of Cu, Zn and Mn up to 60 days. However, day 75 onwards the calves in T2 group exhibited high (P<0.05) serum concentrations of Cu, Zn and Mn followed by that in the T3, T1, T4 and control groups. No significant different (P>0.05) was observed between T3, T1 and C groups.

 

The present finding corroborated those of Olson et al (1999), who reported that supplementation of trace minerals containing Cu, Zn and Mn in organic and inorganic forms raised the serum levels of the respective minerals compared to the control, but within sources only serum Cu and Zn were found more from organic than inorganic form. The present finding on serum trace minerals (Cu, Zn and Mn) concentration was similar to the finding of Hatfield et al (2001).

 

The increased level of Cu, Zn and Mn in the serum of the male calves supplemented with the MBOTMs may be due to the higher bio-availability of these minerals from the said sources than that from the inorganic form. Unlike the inorganic form, MBOTMs do not participate in interaction and antagonism between the minerals, leading to greater absorption from the gastro-intestinal tract. On the other hand, the inorganic forms of trace minerals make the intestinal pH more alkaline leading to precipitation due to formation of inorganic chelates in the gut. These may be the possible reason for the higher concentration of the said trace minerals in the serum of the calves supplemented with the inorganic form of trace minerals (Du et al 1996).

 

Conclusion 

 

References

AOAC 1995 Official methods of analysis, 16th edition., Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Washington, D.C, USA.

 

Du Z, Hemken R W, Jackson J A and Tramnell D S 1996 Utilization of copper proteinate, copper lysine and cupric sulphate using the rat as experimental model. Journal of Animal Science 74:1657-1663 http://jas.fass.org/cgi/reprint/74/7/1657.pdf

 

Garg M R, Bhanderi B M and Gupta S K 2008 Effect of supplementing certain chelated minerals and vitamins to overcome infertility in field animals. Indian Journal of Dairy Science 61 (1):181-184

 

Garg M R, Bhanderi B M and Sherasia P L 2009 Macro and micro-mineral status of feeds and fodders fed to buffaloes in semi-arid zone of Rajasthan. Animal Nutrition and Feed Technology 9(2):209-220

 

Gowda N K S, Prasad C S, Ashok L B and Ramana J V 2004 Utilization of dietary nutrients, retention and plasma level of certain minerals in crossbred dairy cows as influenced by source of mineral supplementation. Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences 17:221-227

 

Hatfield P G, Swenson C K, Kott R W, Ansotegui R P, Roth N J and Robinson B L 2001 Zinc and copper status in ewes supplemented with sulphate and amino acid complexed forms of zinc and copper. Journal of Animal Science 79:261-266 http://jas.fass.org/cgi/reprint/79/1/261.pdf

 

Lee S H, Engle T E and Hossner K L 2002 Effect of dietary copper on the expression of lipogenic genes and metabolic hormones in steers. Journal of Animal Science 80:1995-2005 http://jas.fass.org/cgi/reprint/80/7/1999

 

Manspeaker  J E, Robl M G, Edwards G H and Doughlas L W 1987 Chelated minerals: Their role in bovine fertility. Veterinary Medicine 82:91-95

 

NRC 1989 Nutrient Requirements of Dairy Cattle, 6th Revised edition. National Research Council, National Academy of Science, Washington, DC

 

Olson P A, Brink D R, Hickok D T, Carlson M P, Scneider N R, Dentscher G H, Adams D C, Colburn D J and Johnson A B 1999 Effect of supplementation of organic and inorganic combination of copper, cobalt, manganese and zinc about nutrient requirement levels on postpartum two year old cows. Journal of Animal Science 77:522-532 http://jas.fass.org/cgi/reprint/77/3/522

 

Snedecor G W and Cochran W G 1994 Statistical Methods. 6th edition. Oxford and IBH Publication Company, New Delhi, India

 

Spears  J W 1989 Zinc methionine for ruminants: Relative bio-availability of zinc in lambs and effect on growth and performance of growth and performance of growing heifers. Journal of Animal Science 67:835-843  http://jas.fass.org/cgi/reprint/67/3/835

 

Spears J W 1996 Organic trace minerals in ruminant nutrition. Animal Feed Science and Technology 58:151-163

 

Underwood E J and Suttle N F 1999 The Mineral Nutrition of Livestock. 3rd edition. CABI Publishing, CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, U.K.



Received 9 April 2010; Accepted 6 June 2010; Published 1 August 2010

Go to top