Livestock Research for Rural Development 22 (6) 2010 Notes to Authors LRRD Newsletter

Citation of this paper

Evaluation of Moringa oleifera leaf meal inclusion in cassava chip based diets fed to laying birds

T S Olugbemi, S K Mutayoba* and F P Lekule*

Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, P.M.B. 1044, Zaria, Nigeria
* Department of Animal Science and Production, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P.O. Box 3004, Morogoro, Tanzania
tsolugbemi@abu.edu.ng

Summary

The feasibility of using Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) as an ingredient in cassava chip based diets fed to commercial egg strain chickens and its effects on their production and egg quality were investigated.  Eighty laying birds comprising of ten birds per replicate and two replicates per treatment were assigned to four isocaloric and isonitrogenous dietary treatments.  The diets comprised of Cassava Chips (CC) and MOLM combinations (CC0M0 - 0%CC, 0%MOLM; CC20M0 - 20%CC, 0%MOLM; CC20M5 - 20%CC, 5%MOLM; CC20M10 - 20%CC, 10%MOLM) in addition to other ingredients.  A completely randomized design was employed.

 

Feed intake, feed conversion ratio and laying percentage were not influenced by the inclusion of MOLM.  The lowest egg weight was from the maize based group (CC0M0).  Feed cost per kilogram and feed cost per kilogram egg produced declined with inclusion of MOLM.   Albumen and yolk percentages were not influenced by the inclusion of MOLM.  Eggs from birds on the 10% MOLM diets differed in Roche colour score (7.79) from those on the other diets. General acceptability of the cooked eggs was highest from the 10% MOLM group. 

 

Results of the study indicate that cassava chips can be fed whole to laying birds and the inclusion of MOLM at levels up to 10% in cassava chip based diets fed to commercial egg laying birds is possible and without negative effects in terms of egg quality parameters.  The benefits of enhanced acceptability are equally an advantage of its inclusion.

Keywords: Acceptability, alternative feed ingredients, egg quality, production


Introduction

Maize has traditionally been the ingredient of choice for the supply of energy in monogastric animal diets with inclusion levels from 50-70% (PAN 1995).  The need to discover or re-discover other potential energy sources have been prompted by the competition between animals and humans coupled with the attendant low production resulting in an attendant increase in feed costs. One of such potential crops is cassava (Manihot esculentus) however, limitations to its use in animal feeds amongst others are its relatively low quantity and quality of protein in addition to dustiness.  In order to surmount some of these challenges, inclusion of synthetic amino acids, supplementing with richer protein sources and utilization of cassava in other forms apart from meal have often being advocated.  A natural source of protein with great potential and good source of vitamins and minerals is Moringa oleifera (Mathew et al 2001).  The scarcity of information on the utilization of cassava chips by layers and a dearth of information on the utilization and effects of Moringa in layers diets especially in combination with non conventional energy sources such as cassava prompted this study with the view of evaluating the feasibility and effects of MOLM inclusion in cassava chip based commercial layers diets on egg quality and consumer acceptability of the resulting product. 

 

Materials and methods 

Experimental diets

 

Moringa oleifera leaves were harvested from an orchard within the premises of the Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania and spread out on a floor to dry under shady conditions before milling in a hammer mill to produce the leaf meal (figure 1).  The cassava chips used were obtained from farmers in the Kibaha region of Tanzania (figure 2). 


Figure 1.  Moringa oleifera leaf meal

Figure 2.  Cassava chips


The experimental treatments comprised of four isonitrogenous and isocaloric experimental layer diets with varied proportions of cassava chips (CC) and Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) in addition to other feed ingredients as shown in table 1. 


Table 1.  Composition of experimental diets, %

Ingredients

CC0M0

CC20M0

CC20M5

CC20M10

Cassava Chips

0.00

20.0

20.0

20.0

MOLM

0.00

0.00

5.00

10.0

Maize Bran

23.2

20.9

20.8

19.2

Cotton Seed Cake

6.50

7.30

6.40

5.50

Sunflower seed cake

17.0

18.0

14.0

10.0

Fish meal

10.0

10.0

10.0

10.0

Salt

0.50

0.50

0.50

0.50

Lime stone

8.00

8.00

8.00

8.00

Bonemeal

1.00

1.00

1.00

1.00

Premix

0.30

0.30

0.30

0.30

Chemical analysis, %

 

 

 

 

DM

95.3

95.5

94.9

94.9

ME, MJ/kg

11.2

10.9

10.9

10.9

CP

16.0

16.0

16.0

16.0

CF

8.10

8.70

7.80

6.80

EE

8.40

8.10

7.75

7.30

Ash

13.5

12.7

12.7

12.3

Ca

3.70

3.90

4.00

4.10

P

0.70

0.70

0.70

0.70


Proximate composition of ingredients was determined according to AOAC 1990 methods.  The proximate composition of MOLM and cassava chips is shown in table 2.


Table 2.   Proximate composition of MOLM and CC

Nutrients/Parameters

MOLM

CC

DM, %

94.6

91.6

Crude protein, %

28.0

3.60

Crude fibre, %

7.10

3.60

Ether extract, %

5.90

1.00

Ash, %

12.2

5.80

Nitrogen free extract, %

46.8

86.0

ME, MJ/kg

8.60

9.40

Calcium, %

2.50

0.20

Phosphorus,%

0.30

0.20


Management/feeding of birds

 

Eighty (80) layers aged 65 weeks old were randomly allocated to one of four treatments in a completely randomized design (CRD).  Each treatment comprised of 2 replicates with 10 birds per replicate.  Feed and water were provided ad libitum and the birds were placed on the experimental diets for an adjustment period of two weeks before data taking commenced. 

 

Egg quality parameters

 

The length and width of each egg produced per pen were measured using a vernier caliper on a daily basis for a period of one week with fortnight repetitions in order to calculate the shape index as outlined by North (1990).  Four randomly selected eggs per replicate were carefully broken to determine egg component weights and yolk colour score (using a 15 grade Roche fan) every four weeks. 

 

Sensory evaluation

 

Sensory evaluation was carried out using a five scale hedonic test.  Eight unspiced boiled eggs per treatment were served to 30 panelists. Their assessment of each parameter for a particular sample was indicated by ticking the appropriate box on the provided sheet.

 

Statistical analysis

 

Analysis of variance was used to analyze the data using Statistical Analysis System (1993).  Least significant differences were used to separate significant treatment means.

 

Results and discussion 

Production parameters

 

The effect of dietary treatments on production parameters are shown in table 3. 


Table 3.  Effects of dietary treatment on production parameters

 

Parameter

CC0M0

CC20M0

CC20M5

CC20M10

SEM

Feed Intake, g/day

172

175

174

179

2.04

Egg weight, g

61.9b

63.3a

63.6a

63.4a

3.53

Feed Conversion Ratio(FCR)

2.70

2.75

2.74

2.81

0.03

Laying percentage

66.2

68.4

65.9

63.8

4.28

ab means within rows bearing the same superscript are not significantly different (P>0.05)


Dietary treatments showed no significant (P>0.05) effect on feed intake.  This is in contrast to observations made by Osei et al 1990 and Bhatnagar et al 1996 when other leafmeals such as Leucaena leucocephala were fed to chickens.  This might probably be due to the age of the birds used in this study. 

 

This result also suggests that the addition of MOLM at levels up to 10% even in combination with CC at 20% does not negatively affect the feed intake.  Similar observations were made by Kakengi et al (2007). The lower concentrations of anti-nutritional factors in Moringa oleifera as reported by Makkar and Becker (1997) compared to some other leaf meals fed to layers could be a contributory factor.   

 

The egg weights observed in this study (61.9 – 63.6 g) were within the range for layers in this phase of lay (Tewe and Bokanga 2001; Salami and Odunsi 2003 and Esonu et al 2004). Average egg weights obtained from CC20M0, CC20M5 and CC20M10 which were all cassava based did not differ significantly (P>0.05) from one another however, they were higher (P<0.05) than the control (CC0M0) which was maize based and agree with the findings of Lekule et al (2006) that eggs produced from cassava based diets at levels up to 20% compare favourably well with those on maize based diets.  The inclusion of MOLM up to 10% did not impair the egg size and is supported by the report of Kakengi et al (2007).  The slightly higher (P<0.05) egg weights of CC20M0, CC20M5 and CC20M10 are probably due to the relatively higher feed intake.  Nutritional components required for egg formation is obtained from the feed eaten hence a variation in feed intake would consequently affect the egg size (Etches 1996).  Larger eggs also contain more calories and require more energy to produce them hence larger feed consumption (North 1990).    

 

Feed conversion ratios across treatments were not different (P>0.05) though CC0M0 had the highest value due to the relatively higher feed intake.   Consumption of large amounts of feed without a corresponding large egg weight suggests improper utilisation of the feed.  This is in line with Esonu et al (2004) report on Microdesmis puberula leaf meal but contrasts that of Bhatnagar et al (1996) who fed Leucaena leaf meal.  Highest laying percentage of 68.38% was recorded from CC20M0 probably due to the feed intake and high digestibility of the starch in cassava (Therdchai and Mikled 2001).  Lekule et al (2006) also reported higher laying percentages from birds on cassava based diets compared to the maize based diets.  The decline in laying percentage with the inclusion of MOLM though insignificant (P>0.05) tends to suggest that increasing levels of MOLM might have a negative effect on laying percentage probably due to reduced utilisation capacity of the feed as a result of low digestibility of crude fibre, protein and increased bulk.  Inclusion levels however up to 10% can be tolerated.  The low laying percentage of CC20M10 group inspite of the increased feed intake is also probably due to the inability to effectively utilize the feed.  The similarities (P>0.05) in laying percentage observed between birds on all treatments inclusive of MOLM is supported by the findings of Kakengi et al (2007).

 

Egg parameters

 

The effects of dietary treatments on egg parameters are shown in table 4.


Table 4.  Egg Parameters

 

 

 

Egg Parameters

CC0M0

CC20M0

CC20M5

CC20M10

SEM

Shell Percentage

8.60b

9.22a

8.72ab

9.30a

0.73

Yolk Percentage

25.0

24.8

25.3

25.5

0.66

Albumen Percentage

66.4

66.0

66.0

65.2

1.12

Shell Thickness,

371c

400ab

387bc

411a

34.67

Shape index

72.4b

73.6a

73.5a

73.2a

1.68

Roche Colour

1.24c

1.15c

6.05b

7.79a

7.57

Sensory evaluation

 

 

 

 

 

Taste

3.66b

3.75b

4.07ab

4.52a

1.04

Colour

2.52c

2.96b

4.17b

4.79a

2.83

Aroma

3.21c

3.57bc

3.90ab

4.10a

1.05

General Acceptability

2.83b

3.21b

4.03a

4.48a

2.03

abc means within rows bearing the same superscript are not significantly different (P>0.05)


There were insignificant differences (P>0.05) between dietary treatments for yolk and albumen percentages however shell percentage was influenced significantly with the cassava based diets producing eggs with higher (P<0.05) shell percentages than the control with the highest being from the 10% MOLM diet.  The higher digestibility of cassava starch over maize (Therdchai and Mikled 2001) and Moringa inclusion at 10% while not impairing the utilization of Ca or P seems to have enhanced its deposition.  Shell thickness followed a similar pattern as the shell percentage.  The cassava based diets produced eggs with better (P<0.05) shell index than the control hence reflecting better shape and inclusion of MOLM did not negatively affect this.

 

Significantly (P<0.05) highest roche colour score of 7.79 was observed in eggs obtained from 10% MOLM diet.  The colour score of eggs from MOLM  included diets indicate the improved yolk colouration due to its rich xanthophyl content.  This is in agreement with the report of Kaijage (2003). 

 

Consumers preference for eggs obtained from birds on the MOLM treatments  with respect to taste, aroma and general acceptability were significantly (P<0.05) higher than other groups with 10% MOLM being superior (P<0.05) in  colour.  These results agree with the report of Kaijage (2003) on consumer preference. While the possibility of a desirable aroma being introduced into the yolks by the addition of MOLM cannot be ruled out, it is however very likely that the egg yolk colour might have also unconsciously influenced other factors. Egg yolk colour is a very important factor in consumer satisfaction with a preference for golden yellow to orange (Hasin et al 2006) and food colours have an influence on human appetite for food and judgment of its quality (Amerine et al 1995).  The distinct preference for eggs produced from birds on MOLM diets indicates its viability as a yolk colouring agent which enhances the marketability of eggs. 

 

Conclusion 


Acknowledgement

The authors are grateful to the African Network of Scientific and Technological Institutions (ANSTI) for providing funds to conduct this research.

 

References 

Amerine M A, Pangborn R M and Roessler E B 1995  Principles of sensory evaluation of food.  Academic Press, New York

 

Association of Official Analytical Chemists 1990 Official methods of Analysis.  Washington, D.C.

 

Bhatnagar R, Kataria M and Verna  S V S 1996 Effect of dietary Leucaena leaf meal on the performance and egg characteristics in white leghorn hens.  Indian Journal of Animal Science 66(12):1291-1294 

 

Esonu B O, Azubuike O O, Emenalom O O,  Etuk E B, Okoli H and Nneji C S 2004  Effect of enzyme supplementation on the performance of broiler finisher fed Microdesmis puberula leaf meal.  International Journal of Poultry Science 3(2): 112-114

 

Etches R J 1996 Reproduction in poultry. CAB International, University press, Oxford, Cambridge.  318pp

 

Hasin B M, Ferdaus A J M, Islam M A, Uddin, M J and Islam M S 2006 Morigold and orange skin as egg yolk colour promoting agents.  International Journal of Poultry Science 5(10): 979-987

 

Kaijage J J 2003  Effect of substituting Sunflower Seed Meal with Moringa oleifera leaf meal on the performance of commercial egg strain chicken and egg quality. Unpublished Dissertation for Award of Msc Degree in Animal Science at Sokoine University of Agriculture, Morogoro, Tanzania.

 

Kakengi A M V, Kaijage  J T, Sarwatt S V, Mutayoba  S K, Shem M N and Fujihara  T  2007  Effect of Moringa oleifera leaf meal as a substitute for sunflower seed meal on performance of laying hens in Tanzania.  Livestock Research for Rural Development 19:8 Retrieved 15th April 2008 from http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd19/8/kake19120.htm

 

Lekule F P, Sarwatt S V, Malole J L, Mbwambo N, Temu A and Mamiro P 2006 Assessment of cassava value addition and effect of feeding cassava on the performance of layers.  Proceedings of the 32nd Tanzania Society of Animal Science Scientific conference held at Kilimanjaro Cranes Hotel, Moshi, 24 – 26 October 2006.  250pp

 

Makkar H P S and Becker K 1997 Nutritional and antiquality factors in different morphological parts of the Moringa oleifera tree. Journal of Agricultural Science 128: 311 - 322

 

Matthew T,  Matthew  Z,  Taji S A and  Zachariah S  2001 A review of Viricidal Ayurvedic Herbs of India for Poultry Diseases.  Journal of American Holistic Veterinary Medicine Association 20(1):17

 

North M O 1990 Commercial Poultry Production manual.  Westport connection Publishing Company., Inc, USA. 710pp

 

Osei S A, Opuku C and Atuahene C 1990 Gliricidium leafmeal as an ingredient in layer diets.  Animal Feed Science and Technology 29: 303 - 308

 

PAN 1995  Annual Reports, Poultry Association of Nigeria, Lagos, Nigeria

 

Salami, R I and Odunsi A A 2003   Evaluation of Processed Cassava Peel Meals as Substitutes for Maize in the Diets of Layers.  International Journal of Poultry Science  2 (2): 112-116

 

SAS Institute Inc. 1993 SAS users Guide; version 6.  SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC.

 

Tewe O O and M Bokanga 2001 Cost effective cassava-plant based rations for poultry and pigs.  Proceedings of the 8th International Society for Tropical Root Crops-Africa Branch symposium, Ibadan, Nigeria.  pp 229-234  

 

Therdchai Vearasilp and Choke Mikled 2001  Site and extent of cassava starch digestion in ruminants.  International Workshop on Current Research and Development on Use of Cassava as Animal Feed.   Khon Kaen University, Thailand, July 23-24, 2001.  Retrieved 15th April 2008 from http://www.mekarn.org/procKK/choc.htm



Received 16 January 2010; Accepted 10 May 2010; Published 10 June 2010

Go to top