Livestock Research for Rural Development 22 (4) 2010 Notes to Authors LRRD Newsletter

Citation of this paper

The effect of deep stacking broiler litter on chemical composition and pathogenic organisms

M B M Elemam, A M Fadelelseed* and A M Salih*

Department of Animal Production, Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Resources , University of Kassala,
PO Box 12, New-Halfa, Sudan
murtadaelemam@yahoo.com
* Department of Animal Nutrition, Faculty of Animal Production, University of Khartoum, Sudan

Abstract

Deep stacking broiler litter was evaluated prior to its use as feed ingredient. Fresh broiler litter was collected from a commercial broiler houses in Khartoum state, Sudan. Deep stacking was done in 1.5x1.5x1.5, 1.75x1.75x1.75 and 2x2x2 m silo pits.

 

The high content of protein and minerals in broiler litter indicated its importance as a partial substitute for concentrates in the diet.  Overall, deep stacking had no effect on the chemical composition of broiler litter. The deep stacking of litter was effective in the destruction of pathogens. The numbers of total bacteria and pathogenic microorganisms such as Salmonella and E. coli detected in broiler litter and deep stacked litter were within the acceptable limits.

Key words: Broiler litter, deep stacking, processing


Introduction

The productivity of livestock in terms of milk yield or the annual red meat off-take from an animal unit in Africa including Sudan is considerably low, when compared to other developed countries. Poor nutrition, both in quantity and quality and poor reproductive performance are recognized as major factors limiting animal production. In general the animal feed base in Sudan is insufficient, especially in feed ingredients of high protein content. Improved feeding systems based on supplementation of locally available feed resources will enhance milk and meat production at a considerably low cost and partially fill the gap in protein and energy shortages.

 

The approach in the use of poultry litter as a constituent in ruminant rations was motivated by the shift of the poultry industry from extensive to intensive system of production. This lead to a significant increase in the production of poultry litters. The poultry litter is rich in protein (about 25% protein equivalent), Total Digestible Nutrients (TDN) (about 50%) as well as minerals (El-Ashry et al 1987).

 

The dramatic growth of the poultry industry over the last 10 years created a serious waste disposal problem. The last survey of poultry farms in Khartoum state was revealed that there were about 8.2 million broiler chicken and 1.3 million layers which was done by the Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Resources and Irrigation. These large numbers of growing chicks implies large amount of poultry wastes. The utilization of the waste through ruminant animals became a convenient option of disposing of the waste. The product is readily accepted by the cattle and sheep farmer, not because of any superior feeding qualities, but simply because it is cheaply available.

 

Deep stacking result in heat production and may offer feasible alternatives to render the free of pathogenic bacteria (Chaudhry et al 1998).

 

The objective of this study is to identify possible problems, which may be associated with the inclusion of deep stack broiler litter in rations.

 

Materials and methods 

Broiler litter was collected from a commercial broiler houses, bedded with wood shavings was used. The broiler litter is a mixture of bird excreta, dropped feed, bedding material and feathers.

 

Deep stacking

 

Deep stacking was prepared in underground silo pits (1.5x1.5x1.5, 1.75x1.75x1.75 and 2x2x2 m). The collected litter was spread on a plastic sheet and water was added to bring its moisture contents to about 30% using garden sprayer. Then, the sprayed litter was stacked in the underground silo pit surrounded with plastic sheet and pressed manually. The pressed litter was covered using plastic sheet. A thin layer of soil (3 – 5 cm) was placed over the covered plastic sheet. The preparation of the underground silo pit was made in two days and was opened after a period of at least one month.

 

Chemical composition

 

Representative samples of broiler litter were taken after deep stacking and proximate analysis was made on dried ground samples as outlined by (AOAC 1990).

 

Biological analyses

 

Total (Anonymous 1967) and fecal (Millipore Corp 1973) coliforms were determined on raw broiler litter and deep stacked litter. The aseptic samples collected for microbial analyses were prepared by homogenizing a 25 g sample with 225 ml of distilled water in a blender at full speed for 1 min. Also total bacteria and pathogenic microorganisms (Salmonella and E. coli) (Oxoid Manual 1979) were determined for both broiler litter and deep stacked litter.

 

Statistical procedure

 

The data were treated with the analysis of variance with the general linear model procedure of (SAS 1994).

 

Results 

Pathogenic microorganisms

 

The total bacterial count (CFU/g) of all deep stacked broiler litter was in the range of 173 104 while that of the raw broiler litter was 506 104. Salmonella and E.coli were not detected in deep stacked broiler litter.

 

Chemical composition

 

Table 1 shows the chemical composition of raw broiler litter and deep stacked broiler litter.


Table 1.  Chemical composition of broiler litter and deep stacked broiler litter.

 

BL

DSBL1

DSBL2

DSBL3

Item

 

Dry matter, %

81.3

79.1

77.9

77.4

Crude protein, % DM

28.1

25.7

26.7

27.0

Ash, % DM

21.1

19.7

19.3

19.4

Cell wall components , % DM

 

NDF

41.1

40.6

40.9

41.1

ADF

31.6

30.9

33.2

34.7

Cellulose

18.3

18.1

17.9

17.7

Hemicellulose

9.82

9.73

8.91

8.72

BL: Broiler litter. DSBL1, DSBL2 and DSBL3: Deep stacked broiler litter in silo pits at (1.5x1.5x1.5 m, 1.75x1.75x1.75m and 2x2x2 m) respectively. NDF: Neutral detergent fiber.ADF: Acid detergent fiber. Each value represents the mean of three samples.


However, according to these compositions there are no greater differences between broiler litter and three deep stacked litter silo pits. Also there are no greater differences between broiler litter and three deep stacked litter silo pits for minerals contents as shown in table 2.


Table 2.  Mineral content of broiler litter and deep stacked broiler litter

 

BL

DSBL1

DSBL2

DSBL3

Macro-minerals, %

 

 

 

 

P

1.970.02

1.930.03

2.070.03

2.110.01

Ca

2.70.05

3.10.05

30.01

3.050.005

Na

0.310.01

0.450.015

0.440.005

0.390.005

K

1.780.005

1.690.005

2.010.005

1.970.015

Micro-minerals, ppm

 

 

 

 

Z

2520.5

2311

2470.5

2340.5

Cu

871

910.5

930.5

890.5

Fe

4230.5

4210.5

4370.5

4130.5

Mn

2410.5

2491

2511

2331

BL: Broiler litter, DSBL1, DSBL2 and DSBL3: Deep stacked broiler litter in silo pits at (1.5x1.5x1.5 m, 1.75x1.75x1.75m and 2x2x2 m) respectively.


Microbial counts

 

Total coliform counts of the broiler litter mixtures ranged from 1.22x104 to 1.57x104 organisms per gram, DM (Table 3).


Table 3.  Microbial counts in broiler litter and deep stacked broiler litter a

 

BL

DSBL1

DSBL2

DSBL3

Total coliforms, 10-4/g DM

1.53

0

0

0

Fecal coliforms, 10-3/g DM

3.39

0

0

0

DSBL1, DSBL2 and DSBL3: Deep stacked broiler litter in silo pits at (1.5x1.5x1.5 m, 1.75x1.75x1.75m and 2x2x2 m) respectively.

 a Each value represents the mean of three samples.  b Dry matter basis


Fecal coliform counts on the broiler litter mixture samples were 3.25x1034.14x103 organisms per gram DM. Deep stacking of litter resulted in a complete elimination of total and fecal coliforms.

 

Discussion 

To some extent crude protein content of broiler litter is similar to the value of 267 g/kg reported by Chaudhry et al (1998), and is lower than the value of 310 g/kg reported by Bhattacharya and Taylor (1975), 325 g/kg by Caswell et al (1975) and 340 g/kg by El-Ashry et al (1987). These differences could be attributed to the density of the birds per unit area, the length of the rearing period or the quantity of bedding material. Crude protein contents did not changed significantly within the three silo pits of deep stacked litter. Ash content of the litter is similar to the ash values reported by Caswell et al (1975). Generally, ash contributes 130-150 g/kg of litter DM, depending upon the nature and the quantity of bedding material used (NRC 1983). The higher value of NDF compared to the value of 360 g/kg, reported by Abdelmawla et al (1988), could be attributed to the high quantity of bedding material used. In the present study, no difference was observed for ash and cell wall constituents between the broiler litter and three deep stacked litter samples. The macro and micro elements estimated in this study were in the range of values reported by Bhattacharya and Taylor (1975).

 

The numbers of total bacteria and pathogenic microorganisms such as Salmonella and E. coli detected in broiler litter and deep stacked litter were within the acceptable limits (Saleh et al 2004).

 

Deep stacking of litter resulted in a complete elimination of total and fecal coliforms, which is similar to the findings of Dana et al (1978) and Chester-Jones et al (1980), which reported that deep stacking of litter completely eliminated pathogenic organisms.

 

Acknowledgements 

Thanks are due to the laboratory staff of the Animal Production Research Institute, Agricultural Research Center, Ministry of Agriculture, (Egypt) where this analysis was conducted for their assistance and faithful help.

 

References 

Abdelmawla S M, Fontenot J P and El-Ashry M A 1988 Composted, deep stacked and ensiled broiler litter in sheep diets: chemical composition and nutritive value study. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Animal Science Research. Report. No. 7: 127-129.

 

Anonymous 1967 Standard Methods for the Examination of Dairy Products, 12th edition., American. Public Health  Association. New York, pp. 35-41.

 

AOAC 1990 Official Methods of Analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemistry (15th edition). Washington D.C. U.S.A.

 

Bhattacharya A N and J C Taylor 1975 Recycling animal waste as a feedstuff: a review. Journal of Animal Science 41: 1438–1451 http://jas.fass.org/cgi/reprint/41/5/1438

 

Caswell L.F., Fontenot J.P, Webb and K E Jr 1975 Effect of processing treatment on pasteurization and nitrogen components of broiler litter and on nitrogen utilization by sheep. Journal of Animal Science 40: 750-755 http://jas.fass.org/cgi/reprint/40/4/750.pdf

 

Chaudhry  S M Fontenot J P and Naseer Z 1998  Effect of deep stacking and ensiling broiler litter on chemical composition and pathogenic organisms. Animal Feed Science and Technology. 74: 155-167.

 

Chester-Jones H, Fontenot J P, Lamm, W D, Webb and K E Jr 1980 Growing cattle fed different levels of ensiled and deep stacked broiler litter. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Research Division Report No. 156: 161-163.

 

Dana G R, Fontenot J P, Duque J A, Sheehan W, Webb and K.E Jr 1978 Changes in characteristics of deep stacked broiler litter with time. Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Research Division Report No. 174: 104-106.

 

El-Ashry M.A Khattab, H.M El-Sherafy A Solaiman, H and Abdelmoula S M 1987 Nutritive value of poultry wastes for sheep. Journal of Biological Wastes 19: 287-293.

 

Millipore Corp 1973 Biological Analysis of Water and Waste Water. Catalog No. LAM 302b, Millipore, Bedford, MA, USA.

 

NRC 1983 Underutilized Resources as Animal Feedstuffs. National Academy press, Washington, DC, pp. 18-35.

 

Oxoid Manual 1979 The oxoid of culture media, ingredients and other laboratory services, England. 4th edition.

 

Saleh H M, Elwan K M, El-Fouly H A, Ibrahim I I, Salama A M and Elashry M A 2004 The use of poultry waste as a dietary supplement for ruminants. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). http://www.iaea.org/nafa/d3/public/reports-1.pdf

 

SAS 1994 Statistical Analytical Systems, Users guide (Version 6), SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina, USA.



Received 1 February 2010; Accepted 7 February 2010; Published 1 April 2010

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