Livestock Research for Rural Development 18 (1) 2006 Guidelines to authors LRRD News

Citation of this paper

Effects of stocking levels of ducks on production of Indian Major Carps in village ponds under duck-fish integrated system in West Bengal state of India

B K Chand, A Goswami, P K Biswas , P Biswas* and B C Patra**

Directorate of Research, Extension and Farms, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences,
68, K.B. Sarani, Kolkata, India, 700 037
bimalkinkar@yahoo.co.in
* Faculty of Fishery Science, West Bengal University of Animal and Fishery Sciences, Mohanpur, Nadia, India 741 252
#Department of Zoology, Vidyasagar University, Midnapore, West Bengal, India 721101


Abstract

Three stocking levels of ducks along with control (D0 : no duck, D200: 200 ducks ha-1, D300: 300 ducks ha-1, D400 : 400 ducks ha-1) were tried out in duplicate to evaluate the efficacy of duck manure on fish production. The study involved 8 ponds each of 0.38±0.04 ha, located at Barua village of Midnapore district in West Bengal state. The ponds were stocked with fingerlings of Indian Major Carps (Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala at the ratio of 4:3:3) at stocking density of 7500 ha-1. Ducks were housed on the dyke of the fishpond (Khaki-Campbell male and native strain female at the ratio of 1: 6). No supplementary feed was used for fish, whereas ducks were fed ad libitum with mixed ration containing commercial duck feed concentrate (20%), paddy (50%) and rice bran (30%). During 10 months of culture period (Oct.-July); water parameters, plankton biomass, growth parameters of fish species and duck were recorded at monthly intervals.

The mean dry matter loading rates of duck manure were 4.1, 6.5 and 7.8 kg ha-1day-1 for D200, D300 and D400, respectively. The corresponding loading rates were 0.18, 0.3 and 0.35 kg ha-1day-1for nitrogen; and 0.08, 0.1 and 0.14 kg ha-1day-1 for phosphorus. The weight gain of fish was significantly higher  in all treatments under integrated system than in the control. The mean fish production rates of 2576, 3384, 3643 and 3578 kg ha-1 crop-1 were obtained in D200, D300 and D400, respectively. The average egg production rates of crossbred ducks were 172, 156 and 164 bird-1 yr-1 in D200, D300 and D400, respectively.

The results suggest that the integration of duck-fish is more profitable than fish alone.

Key words: Duck-fish integration, growth, India, productivity


Introduction

Duck-fish integration is very common in countries like China, Hungary, Germany, Poland, Russia and to some extent in India (Ayyappan et al 1998). The fish pond being a semi-closed biological system, with several aquatic animals and plants, provides an excellent disease-free environment for ducks. In turn, ducks consumes tadpoles, juvenile frogs, dragonflies and other insects, making a safer environment for fish. Duck excreta are used as fertilizer in a fishpond, which stimulates the growth of fish food organisms in the pond. Ducks feed on snails and gastropods available in the pond which otherwise serve as vectors for certain diseases and the ducks thus serve in reducing their incidence (Thakur and Thakur 1991). Ducks further help in aerating the pond water along with pond bottom raking effects, which is beneficial for fish. As small-scale farmers comprise the bulk of the population in India, their socio-economic conditions encourage them for duck-fish integration to raise farm productivity (Edwards et al 1988). In the present study three stocking density levels of ducks along with a control were used to evaluate the effects of different loading rates of duck manure on fish production.


Materials and Methods

Three stocking levels of ducks were:  a control (D0 : no ducks) and 200, 300 and 400 ducks ha-1 (D200, D300 and D400), respectively. The study involved 8 ponds each of 0.38±0.04 ha, where the experiment was conducted for 10 months from October '02 - July '03. The ponds were located at Barua village in Midnapore West district of West Bengal state of India and belonged to the farmers. Duck houses were constructed on the dykes of the ponds to provide stocking density of 5 ducks m-2 of house. Ponds were filled with rainwater. Advanced fingerlings of Indian Major Carps (Catla catla, Labeo rohita and Cirrhinus mrigala at the ratio of 4:3:3) were stocked at the rate of 7500 ha-1. Ducklings of 5-6 weeks old were housed on the dyke of the fishpond (Khaki-Campbell male and native strain female at the ratio of 1: 6). Ducks were vaccinated against duck plague and duck cholera diseases at the age of 8 and 9 weeks respectively.

Before stocking, each pond was fertilized with 500 kg lime, 3000 kg composted cattle dung, 30 kg urea and 30 kg single super phosphate per ha. basis. Water quality parameters of the ponds were checked monthly for dissolved oxygen, total alkalinity, ammonia nitrate, total phosphorous, pH, total and volatile suspended solids, phytoplankton and zooplankton (APHA 1980). Duck houses were cleaned with pond water twice a week. Manure loading rates were determined by randomly collecting representative samples from 6 ducks from each treatment. Selected ducks were housed in a cage, feed and water were supplied, and faeces were collected for 24 hours. Approximately 4% of duck feed was contaminated with faeces. However, no attempt was made to separate feed and faeces before analysis, assuming that a similar amount of feed mixture may have spilled to the ponds.

No supplementary feed was used for fish, whereas ducks were fed ad libitum with mixed ration containing commercial duck feed concentrate (20%), paddy (50%) and rice bran (30%). Duck feed was analyzed for moisture, crude protein, crude lipid, crude fiber and ash content (AOAC 1975). The gross energy content was calculated based on the standard physiological fuel values as described by Teng et al (1978). The proximate composition of ingredients and the feed mixture is shown in Table 1. In addition, duck feed and manure were analyzed for phosphorus (Yoshida et al 1971) and organic carbon (Dewis and Freitas 1970). Growth and survival rates of fish were determined every month from sample catchs obtained from cast netting. Partial harvestings were carried out monthly from 8th month onwards with total harvesting at the 10th month.


Results and discussion

The proximate composition of duck feed mixture used in the study is shown in Table 1.

Table 1. Composition of duck feed containing commercial duck feed concentrate (20%), paddy (50%) and rice bran (30%)

Parameters

Value

Dry matter, %

89.9 0.4

Crude protein, %

15.6 0.5

Crude fat, %

6.8 0.4

Crude fiber, %

8.7 0.4

Ash, %

10.8 0.8

Nitrogen Free extract, %

48.00.4

Calculated gross energy, kcal / 100g

315.6

The mean loading rates of duck manure were estimated to be 4.1, 6.5 and 7.8 kg ha-1day-1 for duck stocking densities of 200, 300 and 400 ducks per ha/pond respectively (Table 2).

Table 2. Duck manure composition and mean loading rates

 

D200

D300

D400

Proximate composition of manure, %

Moisture

75.2 2.2

76.1 1.8

75.8 2.0

Proximate composition of manure, % DM basis

Nitrogen

4.4 0.6

4.6 0.8

4.5 0.5

Ash

25.3 1.8

24.8 2.1

25.5 1.9

Phosphorous

1.9 0.3

1.6 0.4

1.8 0.5

Mean loading rate, kg dry wt.ha-1day-1

Total input

4.10

6.50

7.80

Total nitrogen

0.18

0.30

0.35

Ash

1.04

1.61

1.99

Phosphorous

0.08

0.10

0.14

Corresponding loading rates were 1.67, 2.68 and 3.27 kg ha-1 day-1 for carbon, 0.18, 0.3 and 0.35 for Nitrogen; and 0.08, 0.1 and 0.14 for phosphorous. The proximate composition showed N:P ratio of approximately 2.5.

Mean along with minimum and maximum values of water quality parameters during the experimental period are presented in Table 3.

Table 3. Water parameters and plankton biomass recorded during culture period *

Parameter

D0

D200

D300

D400

Temperature, 0C

31.6 (19.137.8)

31.5 (19.0-37.8)

31.5 (19.1-37.7)

31.5 (19.1-37.8)

Water depth, cm

128 (85-145)

122 (80-140)

119 (80-135)

114 (85-135)

pH

8.2 (7.6-8.7)

8.4 (8.0-8.8)

8.2 (7.9-8.7)

8.2 (7.8-8.9)

Dissolved Oxygen, mg litre-1

5.9 (3.8-7.6)

6.4 (4.2-8.2)

6.7 (4.4-8.8)

6.9 (4.6-9.7)

Transparency, cm

43 (33-50)

38 (30-45)

35 (28-42)

29 (22-38)

mg litre-1        

Total alkalinity as CaCO3

64 (36-87)

71 (41-95)

68 (42-93)

77 (48-113)

Total NH3-N

0.07 (0.02-0.1)

0.08 (0.04-0.15)

0.11 (0.05-0.19)

0.13 (0.06-0.21)

Nitrite Nitrogen

0.02 (0.0-0.06)

0.02 (0.0-0.08)

0.03 (0.0-0.1)

0.03 (0.0-0.1)

Phosphate-phosphorous

0.04 (0.0-0.1)

0.04 (0.0-0.1)

0.06 (0.0-0.14)

0.08 (0.0-0.19)

Total suspended solids

58 (18-79)

63 (20-92)

65 (22-96)

73 (25-108)

Total plankton, ml m-3

3.8 (1.6-6.4)

4.8 (2.1-8.2)

5.5 (2.5-9.0)

6.7 (2.8-11.3)

Phytoplankton quantity,.litre-1

91 (34-220)

130 (48-380)

158 (51-467)

182 (56-612)

Zooplankton quantity,litre-1

205 (28-410)

276 (38-580)

314 (31-648)

393 (42-826)

* Mean values with range in parentheses

Water temperature fluctuated widely between 19.0 to 37.8 0C, which was due to change of climate from winter to summer. Since the ponds were rain fed, after monsoon period, water depth declined to 50-60 cm. The pH of water varied from 7.6 to 8.9 with moderate fluctuation. Marked reduction in pH was observed during January and February, which was increased after application of lime. Dissolved oxygen was relatively high in D400 followed by D300, D200 and D0. This indicates that oxygen content increased with increase of stocking density of ducks. It may be concluded that the movement of ducks in the pond helped in aerating the water. Irrespective of treatment, oxygen content was comparatively low during the later stage of the culture period, which might be due to increase in fish biomass and reduction of water level due to the summer period. Phytoplankton and zooplankton biomass were high in treatments with high stocking density of ducks, which might be due to high rate of manuring.

The growth parameters of fish species under different treatments are shown in Table 4.

Table 4. Growth parameters of fish species at the end of culture period in different treatments

Parameter

D0

D200

D300

D400

Growth rate of catla, g day-1

1.95

2.49

2.70

2.67

Survival of catla, %

64.8

72.1

75.4

73.6

Yield of catla, kg ha-1crop-1

1170

1650

1871

1757

Growth rate of rohu, g day-1

1.67

2.24

2.33

2.35

Survival of rohu, %

72.4

68.1

65.5

66.7

Yield of rohu, kg ha-1crop-1

841

1054

1054

1050

Growth rate of mrigal, g day-1

1.54

1.68

2.04

2.08

Survival of mrigal, %

52.9

58.6

51.2

49.1

Yield of mrigal, kg ha-1crop-1

565

680

718

688

Mean survival, %

63.5

66.9

65.2

62.5

Irrespective of treatments, the yield of catla was highest followed by rohu and mrigal. Catla is the fastest growing species among Indian major Carps. At the end of 10 month culture period, the average final weights (g) of each fish species in the treatments D0, D300, D300 and D400, respectively   were: catla  602, 763, 827and 708g ; rohu 516, 688, 715, 721 ; mrigal 475, 516, 623 and 636 (Figures 1 a,b,c).


   
Figure 1a. Body weight of catla fish during
culture period under different treatments
    Figure 1b. Body weight of rohu fish during
culture period under different treatments

Figure 1c. Body weight of mrigal fish during
culture period under different treatments

The results of the analysis of variance showed significant effect of duck density on final weight of all three fish species. The final weight of fish increased with increasing stocking density of ducks. However, further analysis of data with Students' t-test indicated that there was no significant difference between D300 and D400.  The mean fish production rates of 2576, 3384, 3643 and 3578 kg ha-1 crop-1 were obtained in D0, D200, D300 AND D400, respectively (Table 5).

Table 5. Benefit-cost analysis of fish and duck integration system

Parameter

D0

D200

D300

D400

Fish yield, kg ha-1crop-1

2576

3384

3643

3578

Survival rate of duck, %

-

93

91

90

Egg yield, No. yr-1bird-1

-

145

137

132

Egg yield, No. yr-1 bird-1

-

172

156

164

Meat yield, live kg wt. ha-1crop-1

-

223

314

396

Gross income, INR ha-1crop-1

108192

171360

207917

238477

Operating expenses, INR ha-1crop-1

49500

66419

76440

90332

Net profit, INR ha-1crop-1

58692

104941

131477

148145

Benefit : cost ratio (Income : expense)

2.19

2.58

2.72

2.64

Upgradating of the local breed of the duck by crossing native females with Khaki Campbell males yielded encouraging results. The average egg production of crossbred ducks in F1 generation increased from 138 to 164 bird-1yr-1.
 

Conclusions


Acknowledgements

This study was a part of World Bank assisted National Agricultural Technology Project, ICAR, New Delhi, which was carried out through Institution village Linkage Programme.


References

AOAC 1975 Official Methods of analysis (Editor W Horwitz) 12th Edition, Association of Official and Analytical Chemists, Washington, D.C., 417p.

APHA 1980 Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater. American Public Health Organisation. 15th edition. Washington DC. 1134p.

Ayyappan S, Kumar K and Jena J K 1998 Intrgrated fish farming practices and potentials. Fishing Chimes 18 (1):15-18.

Dewis J and Freitas F 1970 Physical and chemical methods of soil and water analysis. FAO soils Buletin No. 10, FAO, Rome.

Edwards P, Pullin R S V and Gartmer J A 1988 Research and education for the development of integrated crop-livestock-fish farming system in the tropics. ICLARM study Review16, 53p.

Teng S K, Chua T E and Lim P E 1978 Preliminary observation on the dietary protein requirement of estuary grouper, Epinephelus salmoides Maxwell, cultured in floating net-cages. Aquaculture, 15, 257-271.

Thakur D P and Thakur M K 1991 Integrated Agriculture-Aquaculture-Animal Husbandry farming system. In: Aquaculture Productivity (Edited by V R P Sinha and H C Srivastava), Oxford and IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi pp. 475-477.

Yoshida S, Douglas A F and James H C 1971 Laboratory manual for physiological studies of rice. The International Rice Research Institute, Los Banos Philippines, 61p.


Received 20 September 2005; Accepted 25 September 2005; Published 18 January 2006

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