Livestock Research for Rural Development 17 (4) 2005 Guidelines to authors LRRD News

Citation of this paper

Evaluation and utilization of Noni (Morinda citrifolia) juice extract waste in complete diets of goats

E M Aregheore

The University of the South Pacific, School of Agriculture, Animal Science Department, Alafua Campus, Apia, Samoa.
aregheore_m@samoa.usp.ac.fj

Abstract

An evaluation of the chemical composition of Noni (Morinda citrifolia) Juice Extract Waste (NJEW) and a study to establish its potential use in complete diets of growing goats was undertaken. NJEW has a CP content of 12.6 %, but high fibre content (NDF, ADF and ADL, hemicellulose and cellulose). The NDF and energy values are 60.9 % and 15.4 MJ/kg DM, respectively, while non-structural carbohydrate content was low (16.7 %). Six growing Anglo-Nubian x Fiji local goats, 7 - 9 m, and initial average body weight of 11.80.62 kg were randomly allocated to three diets balanced for body weight and sex in a double 3 x 3 Latin square design. The three diets were: Control (basal diet); basal + 25% NJEW,and basal  + 35% NJEW.  The basal diet was composed of dried bread fruit, dried brewers' grains, dried banana peel, urea and minerals. 

The goats found the control diet more palatable as shown by decreasing DMI with increasing level of NJEW. There was a progressive decrease in live weight gain and in the digestibility of DM, CP, ADF and OM with increasing level of NJEW in the complete diets.

The unusual taste and low degradability of essential nutrients may be the factors limiting the use of NJEW in ruminant diets.

Keywords: Digestibility, DMI, goats, growth, Morinda citrifolia, Noni juice extract waste, protein intake


Introduction

Morinda citrifolia also called noni, nonu or kura, great morinda or Indian mulberry,  is a member of the Rubiaceae juss family and grows extensively throughout the South Pacific region as an important medicinal plant. Noni is a genus of about 80 species, mostly of tropical origin. The traditional uses of noni plants vary from one country to the other in the South Pacific region. The juice extracted from the fruit is regarded as having a range of medicinal properties and most people in the Pacific Island countries drink it. The juice is high in vitamin C and there is a high demand for it as an alternative medicine for a host of illnesses in the South Pacific region and worldwide.

The fruit of noni is shaped as a potato with pineapple like spots, which change from green to white as it ripens. It is the most used part of the plant but every other part of it (seeds, roots, flowers, bark and leaves) can be used medicinally.

During processing and extraction of juice from ripe noni fruits, a large amount of waste is generated which continues to be discarded. It has been observed that in either the wet or dry state when noni juice extract waste (NJEW) is offered on a cafeteria basis to livestock they often reject it (Ken Newton, Personal communication 2002). NJEW is composed of the pericarp, the pulp and seeds and after juice extraction it retains a dark color. It is the most important byproduct that results from the juice extraction process.

Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis, Park) is an energy food rich in starch and sugar content, but has very low protein content. The pulp is a valuable source of carbohydrate and fibre in human and livestock nutrition. Whole fruit (pulp/peels); pulp and peels separately are used in livestock nutrition (Udo 1981; Aregheore and Susumu 2003) as an energy source.

The proximate analysis of dry NJEW from our laboratory shows that it has a crude protein content of 12.6 %, but a high content of fibre. The high fibre content therefore suggest that it would be a more beneficial feed resource for ruminant livestock because of their rumen physiological adaptation to the use of feeds that are high in fibre. To utilize fibrous crop residues and agro-industrial byproducts in the rations of small ruminants, they have to be subjected to at least a minimum processing like chopping/grinding.

Dry and milled NJEW smells and tastes like coffee. Information on the chemical composition and feeding value of NJEW in the nutrition of livestock is non-available. The objective of this study therefore was to evaluate the chemical composition of NJEW and to establish its potential use in complete diets of growing goats.


Material and methods

Feedstuffs, processing and preparation of complete diets

The feedstuffs used for the experimental diets were noni juice extract waste, banana peels, whole breadfruit, brewers' grains, urea (46 % N), salt and mineral/vitamin premix. Noni juice extract waste was collected from the CCK factory (Apia, Samoa) in the dry form. Banana peels were collected fresh from a banana chips processing factory (Le Angelotte, Apia, Samoa). These were sun-dried until they turned brown and crispy to touch. Whole breadfruit were manually sliced into chips of about 1 cm thickness and oven-dried at 70C for 24 h. Brewers' grains were collected wet from a local brewery, spread on an open concrete floor and turned regularly until they were dry and designated as dried brewer's grains (DBG).

Noni juice extract waste, banana peels and whole breadfruit chips were ground separately in a stainless steel mill through 1-mm screen into flour. The ground products were designated as banana peels flour (BPF) and whole breadfruit flour (WBFF). The products were processed in the above manner to facilitate mixing with other feedstuffs and ingredients, used in the formulation of the complete diets (Table 1).

Table 1. Chemical composition of feedstuffs used in complete diets*

Nutrients, %

NJEW

DBG

BPF

WBFF

Dry matter

90.4

88.3

92.6

92.0

Analysis on DM basis 

Crude protein

12.6

23.5

7.9

4.1

Ether extract

1.1

5.6

2.3

5.0

Ash

8.8

6.2

12.3

4.8

Neutral detergent fibre

60.9

41.4

48.0

12.8

Acid detergent fibre

43.1

26.5

37.9

8.4

Acid detergent lignin

19.0

9.0

12.3

2.6

Hemicellulose

17.8

14.7

10.1

4.4

Cellulose

24.1

17.5

25.6

5.8

Non structural carbohydrates

16.7

23.3

29.5

73.3

Organic matter

91.2

94.4

87.7

95.2

Gross energy, MJ/kg

15.4

17.3

14.6

13.6

* mean of three determinations
NJEW, Noni juice extract waste; DBG, Dried brewers' grains, BPF, Banana peels flour; WBFF, Whole breadfruit flour

The processed feedstuff with urea (46 % N), salt and mineral/vitamin premix were formulated into three isonitrogenous complete diets by adjusting the level of urea added. The diets used were as follows:

Control: Basal diet (no NJEW)

25NJE: Basal +25% NJEW

35NJE: Basal + 35% NJEW. The diets were formulated to be isonitrogenous and isocaloric (Table 2).

Table 2. Percentage composition of experimental diets

 

CONTROL

25NJEW

35NJEW

Noni juice Extract waste (NJEW)

-

25.0

35.0

Brewers' dried grains

45.0

33.0

23.0

Whole breadfruit flour

43.2

30.0

30.0

Banana peel flour

9.0

8.5

8.2

Urea (46 % N)

0.8

1.5

1.8

Mineral-vitamin mix*

1.5

1.5

1.5

Salt (NaCl)

0.5

0.5

0.5

Total

100.0

100.0

100.0

*Summit multi-mineral salt/vitamin: Summit multi-mineral salt (Auckland, New Zealand) The mineral/vitamin block contained salt (NaCl), 120 g/kg calcium, 60 g/kg phosphorus, 60 mg/kg manganese, 150 mg/kg copper, 1.5 mg/kg colbalt, 7.5 mg/kg iodine, 600 mg/kg manganese, 750 m/kg iron, 600 mg/kg zinc, 1.5 mg/kg selenium; Vit. A, D and E with copra meal and molasses added

Animals, experimental design, management and feeding

Six growing Anglo-Nubian x Fiji local goats (3 males and 3 females) between 7 and 9 m of age, with initial average body weight of 11.8±0.6 kg were randomly divided into three groups balanced for body weight and age in a double 3 x 3 Latin square design experiment with three periods, each of 36 days, consisting a 10-day adaptation period, and 21 and 5 days for data and faecal collection. 

The goats were housed under a common roof in pens with concrete floors covered with wood shavings for bedding. The goats were drenched with Levicare (Ancare, Auckland, New Zealand) and litter material was changed periodically.

In this experiment, forage was not introduced because one of the major objectives was to examine the effects of using crop residues and agro-industrial byproducts for goats. It was assumed that the fibre content of the diets would be adequate for rumen function. The complete diets were offered in such a way that daily refusals represented about 10 to 20 % in excess of the previous day's intake. Before any feed was offered, the residue was collected and weighed. The goats had free access to fresh clean water. Body weights were determined on the first three days of each experimental period and the last day of the third period. Body weight change was calculated by difference between mean body weights at the beginning and end of each period.

Digestibility study

At the end of the growth trial, the goats were used for metabolic studies using the total faecal collection method. The bucks were fitted with harness bags. The female goats were housed in cages the floor of which was covered with a very fine wire netting that allowed only urine to pass through. A dustpan and brush were used to collect the faeces. Total faecal output for each goat was weighed and a 25 % sample was removed for dry matter determination. Faeces collected over the period were oven dried at 70C for 36 h. Daily samples of faeces and feed refusals were bulked separately for each goat and milled (Christy and Norris; Process Engineers, Chelmsford, UK) to pass through 1.77 mm sieve and stored in air tight bottles until required for chemical analyses. Feeds offered and refusals were analysed for proximate composition.

Analytical Methods

The AOAC (1995) procedure was used for nutrient content of diets. Dry matter (DM) was determined by drying at constant weight at 70C for 24 h in a forced-air oven, ash by incineration at 600C for 2 h, protein by the micro-Kjeldahl procedure (N x 6.25) (Procedure ID Number 954.02). Fibre fractions, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre (ADF), acid detergent lignin, cellulose and hemicellulose were determined by the procedures of Van Soest et al (1991). The NDF was assayed with sodium sulfite, without alpha amylase and was expressed with residual ash. The gross energy (MJ/kg) value of feedstuffs, diets, forage and faecal samples were determined using a bomb calorimeter (Adiabatic bomb, Parr Instrument Co. Molin, IL, USA) with thermochemical benzoic acid as standard. All analysis were completed in triplicate

Statistical analysis

The design was a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square where each of the three diets was given to each of three goats in three periods, in each of the two replicates, according to the following sequence:

 

Replicate 1

Replicate 2

Period

Goat 1

Goat 2

Goat 3

Goat 4

Goat 5

Goat 6

1

35NUE

CONTROL

25NUE

35NUE

CONTROL

25NUE

2

CONTROL

25NUE

35NUE

CONTROL

25NUE

35NUE

3

25NUE

35NUE

CONTROL

25NUE

35NUE

CONTROL

 The response data were analyzed using ANOVA procedures (Steel and Torrie 1980). Sources of variation were:  goats, period, treatment and residual error. Where significant differences were observed,  treatment means were compared with the Bonferroni t-test.


Results and discussion

The NDF, ADF, ADL and cellulose increased and non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) fraction decreased with increase in the level of NJEW in the diet (Table 3). The NSC fraction represents the carbohydrates that are soluble in neutral detergents and can be estimated as 100 minus [protein, NDF corrected for protein, lipids and ash in the feed] (Sniffen et al 1992).

Table 3.  Chemical composition of experimental diets

 

Control

25NJE

35NJE

Dry matter, %

87.2

87.5

89.8

On DM basis (%)

 

 

 

Crude protein

13.0

13.0

13.0

Ether extract

2.1

1.9

1.7

Ash

6.0

6.1

6.9

Neutral detergent fibre

34.3

46.0

49.0

Acid detergent fibre

21.2

32.4

34.4

Acid detergent lignin

10.5

11.0

12.4

Hemicellulose

13.1

13.6

14.6

Cellulose

14.7

21.4

22.0

Non-structural carbohydrate

44.9

33.0

29.4

Organic matter

94.0

93.9

93.1

Gross energy (MJ/kg, DM)

16.0

16.1

16.5

There was a progressive decrease in DM intake and live weight gain, and in the apparent digestibility of all nutrients,  with increase in the levels of NJEW (Table 4).

Table 4. Dry matter intake, average daily gain daily protein, digestible energy and apparent nutrient digestibility coefficients of goats*

Parameters

Diets**

Control

25NJE

35NJE

SEM

Daily dry matter intake, g/day

343a

292ab

171b

21

Live weight change, g/day

69

55

48

 

Daily protein (N x 6.25) intake, g/kgW0.75

8.5

7.8

7.1

0.6

Digestible energy, MJ/ kg DM/day

11.4

10.9

10.1

0.7

Metabolizablee energy intake, DE x 0.82) (KJ/kg 0.75/d

719

659

588

 

Apparent digestibility, %:

 

 

 

 

Dry matter

66.2a

63.5ab

60.1b

2.5

Crude protein

64.7a

57.8ab

55.6b

3.9

Neutral detergent fibre

69.4

65.6

63.9

2.3

Acid detergent fibre

70.3a

64.8b

63.5b

2.9

Organic matter

69.1a

66.6ab

63.1b

2.5

Energy

71.0

68.0

65.1

2.4

* Mean of six goats
ab Means in the same row without common letter are different at P<0.05

                    

The unusual taste of NJEW may be one factor leading to decrease in DMI, since it has been reported that when offered to livestock on a cafeteria basis it is always rejected (Ken Newton, Personal communication 2002).  Xeronine is a major substance present in noni, however, it has it appears to have no detrimental effect on the  animal (Heinicke 2004). The implications from the digestibility data are that all the nutrients in NJEW are of low availability to rumen micro-organisms. If the data for DM and crude protein digestibility are extrapolated to diets with 100% NJEW, the coefficients for DM and crude protein in the NJEW would be only 50 and 39% respectively. Thus the unusual taste and low degradability of essential nutrients may be the factors limiting the use of NJEW in ruminant diets.

In view of the large quantities of NJEW available from Noni juice factories in the Island countries in the South Pacific region, more research is needed to identify the factors limiting its utilization by ruminants, and the potential for increasing its nutritive value by chemical or physical treatment.


Acknowledgement

I am grateful to Messr. Tipi Tavoi Ikenasio and Eteuati Sameseia for care of animals and technical assistance; Mr. Ken Newton (CCK) for providing and milling the noni juice extract waste, Mr. Daya Perera for the initial laboratory analysis and finally, Mr. Peter Corbett (Laboratory Manager) and staff of the Chemistry Laboratory, National Agricultural Research Institute, Boroko, NCD, Papua New Guinea for chemical analyses.


References

AOAC 1995 Official Methods of Analysis, Association of Official Analytical Chemist. 16th Edition, Washington, DC.

Aregheore E M, Kumar A and Manueli P 2003 Dietary energy and protein for optimal growth of crosbred Anglo-Nubian goats in Samoa. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 5(4):428-431.

Heinicke R 2004 Noni Juice, xeronine, damnacanthal and scientific studies. Noni (Morinda citrifolia): Scientific Studies and News. http://resorthealth.com/noni_research/heinecke.html.

Sniffen C J, O'Connor J D, Van Soest P J, Fox D G and Russell J B 1992 A net carbohydrate and protein system for evaluating cattle diets. II. Carbohydrate and protein availability. Journal of Animal Science, 70:3562-3577.

Steel R G D and Torrie J H 1980 Principles and Procedures of Statistics. 2nd Edition, McGraw Hill, New York, NY. Pp.481.

Van Soest P J, Robertson J B and Lewis B A 1991 Methods for dietary fibre, neutral detergent fibre and non-starch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 3583-3597.

Udo H 1981 Evaluation of breadfruit as a possible energy source for poultry diets in W. Samoa. Alafua Agriculture Bulletin, 6:49-54.


Received 4 November 2004; Accepted 14 February 2005; Published 1 April 2005

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