G Alexandre, G Matheron*, P Chemineau** , J Fleury
Unité de Recherches Zootechniques, INRA Antilles-Guyane, Domaine Duclos, Prise d'Eau 97170 Petit-Bourg, Guadeloupe, French West Indies
Reproductive performances of the
Creole goat, the meat breed of Guadeloupe in the Caribbean, are
described from a database generated for 15 years (1973 to 1988)
at an experimental farm of the Institut National de la Recherche
Agronomique (INRA, Guadeloupe, French West Indies). The data
contain information on 599 females, 2259 attempted matings, 2135
achieved matings and 1904 kiddings. Animals were reared under
semi-intensive management conditions (on the basis of feeding
system, health and culling policy). Main sources of variation
were analysed: mating type (buck in permanence or buck effect),
mating season (dry, intermediate and humid season) and rank of
kidding. The Creole goat is a continuous breeder. On average 94.5
percent of exposed females were mated (defined as mating rate)
and 90.5 percent of exposed females achieved a kidding (fertility
rate). Their prolificacy reached 1.98 kids/kidding, with only 3.9
percent of kids born dead. These reproductive parameters varied
essentially with rank of kidding but very poorly with the mating
season. Productivity of these females was regularly high during
their whole lifetime production. From the results obtained, it is
concluded that Creole goats have very high reproductive
performances, provided that animal husbandry and nutrition are
Genetic parameters for growth at 120, 240 and 365 days of age (P120, P240 and P365) were estimated in Nellore beef cattle from the Nellore Genetic Breeding Program database by taking into account, or not, the covariance between direct and maternal genetic effects. The estimation was carried out by one trait Animal Model using MTDFREML software, considering contemporary groups (herd, birth season, year, sex and feeding management) and age at calving (<36, 37-47, 48-59, 60-71, 72-119 y >120 months) as fixed effects, and direct genetic, maternal genetic and permanent environment as random effects. Medium to high observed direct heritability values (h2a = 0.23-0.33) were obtained from both analyses. The lower maternal heritability values (0.05-0.08) increased after the covariance was considered in the model (up to 0.10). All the correlation values were negative, from low to medium scale (-0.199 to 0.430). In view of this, a study of the rank correlations of genetic values to verify their influence in classification of animals is suggested.
The nutritive value for pigs of sun-dried leaves from trichanthera (Trichanthera gigantea) and mulberry (Morus alba) was assessed in two experiments. In experiment 1, digestibility indices and N balance were determined in eight Mong Cai castrated male pigs (mean liveweight 14.5 kg) fed 30% of sun-dried trichanthera or mulberry leaves according to a balanced change over design. In experiment 2, the in vitro (pepsin/pancreatin) N digestibility of both sets of leaf meals was compared. The substitution of 30% of the basal diet implied that both trichanthera and mulberry provided on average 29.3% of the total N in the diet.
In vivo organic matter and N total digestibility as estimated by difference were higher (P<0.01) in mulberry than in trichanthera leaf meal (trichanthera, 71.5 and 66.2; mulberry 84.6 and 81.1%, respectively). The diet containing 30% of mulberry leaf meal exhibited a higher N retention (P<0.05) than that containing trichanthera leaf meal.
In vitro organic matter and N solubility, simulating ileal digestion in pigs, were higher (P<0.001) for mulberry as compared to trichanthera leaf meal (trichanthera 35.9 and 37.5; mulberry 56.7 and 47.7%, respectively).
Further studies concerning factors affecting N utilization of trichanthera by pigs are recommended. The high nutritive value of the mulberry leaves employed in the present experiments indicates its potential as a protein source in pig feeding.
Poor reproductive performance; low productivity due to inadequate availability and poor quality of feed; high cost of commercially available feeds; high incidence of tick-borne diseases; excessive calf mortalities; and inadequate knowledge on appropriate management of cattle were identified as the major problems facing smallholder dairy farming in integrated crop-livestock systems in Nharira-Lancashire, Zimbabwe. In order to ensure sustainable dairy farming, potentially effective technologies and management strategies were promoted through participatory action research (PAR) involving farmers, researchers and extension workers. A farmer research committee coordinated a jointly initiated and managed technological demonstration programme. Emphasis was placed on farmer-led, farmer-to-farmer extension, with volunteer farmers serving as resource persons. Participating farmers chose and tried on their farms those interventions they felt could assist them in producing optimal farm management systems. This study highlighted the attributes of stakeholder participation in research and development (R and D). It was concluded that farmer participation should be an integral component of agricultural R and D programmes.
This study examines agricultural development of the coastal irrigation zones in Southern Peru. A historical review gives evidence that the establishment of a dairy enterprise and its extension activities have shaped the agricultural and regional development in the past. The fast expansion of milk production is strongly related to farmers propensity for income security independent of farm size. In order to expand the cultivation of agricultural crops, to boost regional development through the generation of additional job opportunities and income, market-oriented policy interventions are necessary that reduce price fluctuations for agricultural crops
During the last years a significant portion of Latin American forests has been converted into extensive cattle ranching. Pastures cover 46% of the land area in Central America (18.4 million hectares), making this the most important land use category. Between 1960 and 1995, natural forests and other land use classes in Colombia decreased from 94.6 to 72.4 million hectares, while livestock ranching increased from 16.6 to 35.5 million hectares. Both, the area covered by pastures and ruminant production have increased in Latin America over the last years, but livestock ranching is practiced on inadequate lands thereby promoting environmental degradation. This was the case in the Amazon region, where 35% of the pastures were abandoned following soil-productivity loss and economic collapse.
The social and environmental re-conversion of livestock production is therefore a regional priority. The intensification of this activity could significantly increase its social, economic, and alimentary contributions. Livestock agroforestry is a substantial part of this transition. This article describes 9 types of agroforestry systems related to animal production and present in Latin America: 1. Silvopastoral systems with managed succession, 2. Livestock grazing in forest plantations, 3. Live fences, 4. Trees in pastures, 5. Alley cropping, 6. Wind shields, 7. High tree-density silvopastoral systems, 8. Cut-and-carry systems (protein banks, either pure or multi-strata policultures) and 9. Energy banks.
This paper deals with the effect of farm size on the main economic indicators in extensive sheep farms in Extremadura. The data for the present study were collected from a survey performed on 96 sheep farms in the year 2000. The effect of farm size (n = four) on a series of economic indicators was determined by analysis of variance using the GLM procedure. It was observed that the average value of the land represented 71.4% of the total farm capital. This ratio decreased as the farm size became smaller. It was found that the smaller the farm size, the higher the fixed capital values; and the larger the farm the lower the gross production per hectare.
This paper reports an análisis of 94 sheep farms in semi-arid grazing areas in the southwest of Spain. The data for the present study were collected by survey in the year 2000 from 96 sheep farms in Extremadura, by carrying out a random sampling design for a confidence level of 95%. As the most significant factor of the analysis, the farm size effects were analysed according to the stocking rate values. An ANOVA analysis was made following the general linear model procedure. The result was an average stocking rate of 0.40±0.16 UGM (large animal units) /ha of SAU. A significant difference was observed between the larger and the smaller farm sizes, showing a higher production as the UFS increased. There was a high correlation between the UGM of the sheep and the UGM of the pig population (r=0.70; p<0.01). The livestock pressure on the grazing (CGt) was negatively correlated with the area suitable for grazing by livestock (r= -0.29; p <0.01).
A research study on the status of
broiler production was conducted on 62 broiler farms in Swat,
Pakistan, with examination and comparison of records maintained
during the year 1998.
Marketing of broilers was not practiced on live weight, and average flock size was lower (1627±125#) than the available shed capacity (1768±171). Flock size (b=0.002±0.001), age at marketing (b=-0.88±0.12), and percent mortality (b=-0.378±0.091) were significantly (P<0.01) associated with net profitability. Sheds were located at a distance of 317±50 m from the main road. Duration between two batches was 17.2±0.92 days and the number of batches per year was 4.51±0.29. Bedding material used was 0.60±0.02 kg/broiler. Age and weight at marketing were 39.0±0.82 days and 1.23±0.03 kg, respectively. Higher (p<0.05) weight at marketing was found in broilers at a given space of 0.09m2/broiler (1.34±0.11 kg) than in those given less than 0.09m² floor space/broiler (1.17±0.38 kg).
Similarly, higher (p<0.05) weight/broiler was found under good hygienic conditions (1.35±0.77 kg) and with a standard immunization schedule (1.37±0.11 kg) than that found under poor hygienic conditions (1.13±1.2 kg) and partial immunization schedule (1.15±0.96 kg).
Overall mortality was 13.1±1.16%,
representing 7.59±0.46% from day 1 to 14 and 18.5±0.95% from
day 15 till marketing of the broilers. Mortality was
significantly affected by immunization schedule, hygienic
condition of the farm and floor space given/broiler. Interaction
of the aforementioned variables also indicated a significant
effect on mortality in broilers. Mean feed consumption/broiler
was 3.81±3.38 kg. Total feed represented 1.56±0.14 kg starter
and 2.26±0.26 kg finisher ration consumed/broiler. Average
variable cost of production, returns and net profit/broiler were
Rs.53.0±0.90, Rs. 54.9±1.07 and Rs.1.97±1.09, respectively.
Substantially improved performance in Swat was found to be related to better utilization of available floor space (0.09 m²/broiler), with a reduction in mortality, good hygiene, adhering to an approved scheduled immunization and the marketing of broilers on live-weight basis.
Thirty-two crossbred rabbits were randomly allocated to four groups each with eight animals, and kept individually in separate cages. The four dietary treatments were (control) ad libitum commercial rabbit pellets, 75% pellets and stale bread ad libitum, 50% pellets and stale bread ad libitum and only ad libitum stale bread. No obvious health problem was encountered during the experiment. The parameters measured were feed intake and digestibility (dry matter, organic matter, crude protein, crude fibre and energy).
Average feed intake was the highest with 100% commercial pelleted diet (128 ± 2.04 g DM/day) and lowest on 100% stale bread (58.5 ± 2.45 g DM/day), reflecting a 54% decrease in dry matter intake. The dry matter, organic matter and protein digestibility were higher on stale bread than on commercial pellets.
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